Vienna. Austrian capital.
Vienna (Austria) – the most detailed information about the city with photos. The main sights of Vienna with descriptions, travel guides and maps.
City of Vienna (Austria)
Vienna is the capital and largest city of Austria, located in the northeastern part of the country. This megalopolis with a unique charm, energy and atmosphere, the historical center of which is included in the list of UNESCO World Heritage Sites. Vienna is the cultural capital of Europe, a remarkably romantic and open city that has preserved its enormous historical heritage. Here among the vast imperial squares and luxurious palaces lurk amazing sights, monuments and masterpieces of art.
Vienna is one of the most popular cities in Europe. Austrian capital attracts gastronomic aesthetes with its culinary delights and restaurants, fashionable people with its stores, bohemians with its theaters, operas, exhibitions and museums. Vienna is the city of music and art. Great composers lived and worked here: Mozart, Beethoven, Schubert and Strauss, as well as many famous artists who turned the city into a European treasure trove.
Things to do (Vienna):
€250 per tour.
Vienna city tour with a professional photographer
Enjoy discovering Vienna’s history and sights, and getting a beautiful portfolio of photos.
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Bike ride along the Danube to the summit of the Leopoldsberg
Pedaling, feeling like a modern European and enjoying life and nature
Geography and climate
Vienna is located in the northeastern part of Austria at the foot of the Alps on the banks of the Danube. It is also home to the River Vienna, which gave its name to the city. The capital of Austria lies on a hilly plain called the Danube Plain. The surrounding area is covered with forests, and on the slopes of the hills grow vineyards.
The climate is temperate with warm summers and mild winters. The annual precipitation is just over 600 mm. Vienna’s climate is fairly dry. The average temperature in summer is about 20 degrees, in winter – about zero. When invading the cold eastern fronts, frosts to -10 degrees are possible.
Panorama of Vienna
- Population – 1 857.6 thousand people.
- Area – 414.8 square kilometers.
- Language: German. Although Austrian German differs from traditional German in terms of pronunciation and morphology.
- Currency – the euro.
- Time is Central European UTC +1, in summer +2.
- There are 23 parks in Vienna.
- The main religion is Roman Catholic.
- Vienna is one of the safest cities in the world. There are no slums and areas to avoid. You can walk around the Austrian capital whenever and wherever you want.
- Special mention should be made of the high quality drinking water, which is as good as, and sometimes better than, the bottled water.
- Vienna has an excellent public transport system: subway and suburban trains, streetcars and buses. A single ticket is valid and must be stamped at the entrance to the subway platform, streetcar or bus. Tickets can be purchased from special vending machines at subway stations and tobacco kiosks.
The history of Vienna as a settlement began around the 1st century AD. At that time a Roman fort was built here. This small fortress was called Vindobona. In the 5th century, the Romans left the fortress and it was inhabited by Avar and Slavic tribes.
The first written mention of Vienna dates back to the Carolingian period (9th century). At that time there was a small castle, a dozen houses and the church. In the 12th century the importance of Vienna increases. It became the residence of Austrian dukes Babenberg.
By the end of the 13th century the city became the main residence of the Habsburgs. In the second half of the 15th century the bishopric was established here. In 1529 the Turks tried to capture Vienna and were defeated despite their overwhelming superiority.
In the 16th century, Vienna became the center of the Habsburg Empire. The city becomes one of the cultural, economic and political centers of Europe. In 18-19 centuries the capital of Austria is one of the centers of world culture and music. At the beginning of the 19th century, the city was invaded several times by the armies of Napoleon Bonaparte. At the beginning of the 20th century, Vienna was one of the largest cities in the world. As a result of the defeat of Austria-Hungary in World War I, the Habsburg Empire collapsed and Vienna lost its influence.
Vienna in the evening
In 1938, German troops entered the city. The capital of Austria was liberated by Soviet troops in April 1945. Modern Vienna is a major cultural, tourist and economic center of Europe and the headquarters of many international organizations.
How to get there
The international airport is located in the suburb of Schwechat. Most European airlines and a significant number of intercontinental airlines have direct flights to Vienna. From the airport to the city you can take the S-Bahn (S7) and buses. The most convenient way to get to the center is a natural train (Floridsdorf) to Wien-Mitte station, and then you need to take the subway line U3 to the center.
Vienna is one of the largest railway junctions. High-speed trains run from Munich, Budapest, Zurich and Prague. Other destinations include Dusseldorf, Cologne, Frankfurt, Nuremberg, Brno, Bratislava. The Austrian capital also has excellent automobile accessibility.
Stores are usually open from 9.00 / 10.00 to 18.00 / 20.00 and are closed on Sundays. Large shopping malls and supermarkets are open until 10 p.m. Many stores (including brand names) can be found in Kärntner Strasse, Graben, Kohlmarkt and Mariahilfer Strasse. Tuchlauben 3-7A / Bognergasse / Seitzergasse is the so called “golden quarter” with the most luxurious boutiques including: Prada, Saint Laurent, Bottega Veneta, Emporio Armani, Louis Vuitton, Valentino, Miu Miu, Alexander McQueen, Brioni, Mulberry, Etro, Pomellato, Brunello Cucinelli.
Vienna boasts one of the most famous culinary traditions in the world. The varied but truly harmonious assortment of dishes reflects the combination of national and cultural traditions in the former multinational empire. First of all the Austrian capital is famous for coffee, desserts – the famous zacher cake, strudel, salzburger nockerln.
View of Vienna
The traditional Viennese fast food is hot dogs and hot sausages, which you can buy in the numerous Würstlstands. Various Balkan and Turkish fast food outlets are also common. Traditional dishes include schnitzel with potato salad and pieces of boiled beef with side dishes.
Vienna is a city with a rich history, the capital of the once mighty empire. Here you can find magnificent sights, historical buildings and cultural monuments. But Vienna is especially famous for its museums, theaters and art galleries.
The Hofburg is one of the symbols of Vienna’s imperial past. A huge luxurious palace that was the winter residence of the Habsburgs. In the Middle Ages there was a castle here, of which a small chapel has survived. The Hofburg was expanded into a magnificent residence when Vienna became the capital of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. Nowadays you can find almost every architectural style – from Gothic to Art Nouveau – here. And in its halls are the national library, treasury, museum of musical instruments, weapons and ethnography, and the famous “Spanish Riding School”.
The enormous palace square – Heldenplatz (Heroes’ Square) – is also impressive. The equestrian statues of Archduke Charles, who won the Battle of Aspern against Napoleon’s forces (1809) and Prince Eugene of Savoy, who defeated the Turks, bear witness to Austria’s glorious past. Heroes’ Square is not just a huge square in the center of the Austrian capital, it is one of the symbols of glorious history.
St. Stephen’s Cathedral
The Cathedral of St. Stephen (Stephansdom) is one of Vienna’s most famous landmarks and one of the most significant masterpieces of European Gothic. Construction of the first church dates back to 1147. For a long time Stephansdom was the tallest building in Europe – 137 meters. The old church was rebuilt in Gothic style at the order of Duke Rudolf IV. In 1359 he laid the cornerstone of the nave, and in 1433 the South Tower was completed.
St. Stephen’s Cathedral is especially notable for its large, beautiful roof and tall, slender tower (136.7 meters). Interestingly, the number of medieval towers of this height in the world can be easily counted on the fingers. Inside the cathedral are many art treasures, such as the tomb of Prince Eugene of Savoy, one of the greatest commanders of Europe (1754), the altar of Wiener Neustadt, the pulpit of Anton Pilgram (1514-15), the tomb of Emperor Frederick III by Niclas Gerhart (1467-1513) and the Gothic altar.
St. Stephen’s Cathedral is the centerpiece of Viennese legends and stories. On the left side of the main entrance is a strange indent, which was used to measure the size of a loaf of bread if a customer was unhappy with its size. The unfinished north spire is attributed to a young architect who was in love with the daughter of the builder of the south spire. Although the most likely reasons are financial problems due to the constant threat of a Turkish siege and Gothic going out of fashion. And dozens more such romantic, funny and mystical stories.
Church of St. Charles
The Church of St. Charles is a masterpiece of Baroque architecture and the largest Baroque church north of the Alps. It was built in 1715 by the famous Austrian architect Johann Fischer von Erlach. It was erected to honor Emperor Charles VI’s vow of gratitude for deliverance from a severe plague epidemic and was dedicated to St. Charles Borromeo.
The church is located in one of Vienna’s central squares, “Karlsplatz”. The square in front of the cathedral was rebuilt in the 1970s by one of the most important sculptors of the 20th century, Henry Moore.
The unusually wide pediment of the church of St. Charles is composed of several contrasting elements that remarkably complement the unique and harmonious overall image. Two bells with allegorical representations of the life of St. Borromeo recall the Italian Renaissance. They form the main portal, reminiscent of a Greek temple. The oval nave of the church has a beautiful dome (72 m high), spectacularly decorated inside.
The Anchor Clock on Vienna’s oldest Hoher Markt square is in the Art Nouveau style. The clock was built in the early 20th century by von Matz and forms a bridge between the two parts of the Anker Insurance Company building. For 12 hours, twelve historical figures move across this peculiar “bridge”. Among them are the medieval lyricist Walter von der Vogelweide, Empress Maria Theresa and Prince Eugene of Savoy. Every day at noon, the clock strikes back with a short show accompanied by music from different eras.
Belvedere is one of the most beautiful palace complexes of the Austrian capital. It consists of two magnificent palaces in the middle of a magnificent park. Belvedere was built for Prince Eugene of Savoy by the famous Baroque master von Hildebrandt. Interestingly enough, the palace complex was originally located outside the city walls, but today it is part of Vienna’s third district, which is close to the historic center. The architecture and design of the Belvedere halls is in the Rococo style. Both palaces now house museums with Austrian paintings from the 18th and 20th centuries. The park is a collection of more than 4,000 plants of the alpine ecosystem. It is especially beautiful in spring and summer.
The Ring Boulevard is the ceremonial avenue of Vienna. It is a boulevard ring, 4 km long, which encircles the center of the Austrian capital. The Ring Boulevard was laid out in 1857 by Franz Joseph I. It was built on the site of the old walls and fortifications. Walking here you can look at a large number of monumental historical buildings of different architectural styles.
The National Theater (Burgtheater) is located in Vienna’s first district, across from City Hall on the famous circular avenue. It is a monumental building from the late 19th century with a white marble facade. It is one of the most famous theaters in Europe.
The Vienna Opera is located in the heart of Vienna, at the southern end of Kärntner Straße. It is one of the most famous opera houses in the world. The opera building was built in the second half of the 19th century in the Italian Renaissance style.
The Prater is Vienna’s most popular entertainment fair. Its most significant part is the huge Ferris wheel. It was installed at the end of the 19th century to commemorate the reign of Emperor Franz Joseph. The Ferris wheel is 60 meters high.
Blutgasse is an area of narrow winding streets, medieval and baroque buildings. The area is close to St. Stephen’s Cathedral.
Maria am Gestade
Maria am Gestade is one of the oldest buildings in the Austrian capital, a Gothic Catholic church from the 14th century. It is located in the northern part of the historic center.
Abbey of Scotland is a Benedictine monastery founded in the 12th century. Located in the central part of Vienna on the Freyung Square.
The Plague Column is a monumental Baroque sculpture built in the late 17th century in marble. Interestingly, the column is dedicated to the Holy Trinity, not the Virgin Mary.
Church of St. Augustine
The Church of St. Augustine is the court church of the Habsburgs. It was founded in the 14th century by Augustinian monks. This Gothic religious building is located on Josefplatz square in the center of Vienna.
Church of St. Peter
St. Peter’s Church is an early 18th-century Roman Catholic Baroque church on Graben Street. The church was built on the site of an old medieval religious structure by Gabriel Montana under Emperor Leopold I.
The Mariahilfer is a 17th-century Roman Catholic Baroque church located in Vienna’s sixth district.
Vienna City Hall
Vienna City Hall is a grand late 19th-century neo-Gothic building located in the historic center of Vienna. It was designed by Friedrich Schmidt.
Parliament is a late 19th-century marble-clad monumental building. It is the seat of the national parliament.
Wien (German, Wien , Latin: Vindobona, Vienna) is the capital of Austria, located in the eastern part of the country. It is one of the nine provinces of Austria, surrounded on all sides by the territory of another state – Lower Austria. The city of Vienna has a population of 1.67 million (mid-2007), and along with its suburbs it has a population of around 2.3 million.
Vienna is the third UN host city after New York and Geneva. The International Vienna Center (the so-called UNO-City) includes the IAEA, the UNODC, the United Nations Industrial Development Organization and others. The headquarters of international organizations, such as OPEC and OSCE, are located in Vienna.
In December 2001, the Old City of Vienna was included in the list of cultural heritage of UNESCO.
Vienna has an area of 415 km² . Vienna is thus the smallest federal state of Austria. The area of the city is distributed as follows:
|Built-up land||11,3 %|
|Road surface||11,1 %|
|Railroad area||2,2 %|
|Water areas||4,6 %|
|Forest areas||16,6 %|
The city is located in the eastern part of Austria, at the foot of the Alps, on the banks of the Danube River, 60 km from the border with Slovakia. The Danube and its Donaukanal branch flow through Vienna, as does the Vienna River. Historically, the city developed south of the Danube, but in the past two centuries, Vienna has grown on both sides of the river. The highest elevation of the city above sea level is in the Hermannskogel region (542 m), while the lowest is in Eslinge (155 m). The city is fringed by the Vienna Woods. 
The geographically advantageous location makes Vienna a very convenient place to develop diverse relations with Eastern countries. This became particularly noticeable after 1989, when the so-called Iron Curtain fell. For example, Vienna is only 60 kilometers from Bratislava, the capital of Slovakia, which is the shortest distance between the two capitals in Europe, excluding the Vatican and Rome.
Vienna is shaped like a circle crossed by the chord of the Danube River. Since Roman times, the city has expanded in concentric circles. Its central part, the so-called inner city (Innere Stadt), almost coincides with the administrative boundaries of the first district. The Ring is a chain of boulevards, forming a ring. The history of the Ring began in 1857, when the emperor decided to demolish the fortifications that were no longer needed. The Gürtel, the belt that forms a concentric circle around the Ring, emerged in 1890. It absorbed the villages and churches surrounding Vienna that had been built on the site of the parish churches that had surrounded the capital of the empire in the past. Beyond the Gürtel is the so-called “red Vienna,” that is, the working-class neighborhoods built by socialists between 1923 and 1934. 
Vienna is divided into 23 districts:
1. The inner city ( Innere Stadt ) 2. Leopoldstadt ( Leopoldstadt ) 3. Landstraße ( Landstraße ) 4. Wieden ( Wieden ) 5. Margareten ( Margareten ) 6. Mariahilf ( Mariahilf ) 7. Neubau ( Neubau ) 8. Josefstadt ( Josefstadt ) 9. Alsergrund ) 10. Favoriten 11. Simmering ( Simmering ) 12. Meidling ) 13. Hietzing ) 14. Penzing ( Penzing ) 15. Rudolfsheim-Fünfhaus 16. Ottakring 17. Hernals ( Hernals ) 18. Währing ( Währing ) 19. Döbling ( Döbling ) 20. Brigittenau ( Brigittenau ) 21. Floridsdorf ( Floridsdorf ) 22. Donaustadt ( Donaustadt ) 23. Liesing ( Liesing ).
The climate is subalpine and is largely influenced by the proximity of the mountains. Winter : average temperature -1.5°C, occasional frosts of -12 to -18°C, frequent snowfalls. Summer : average air temperature is around +20° C. Rainfall: 700-2000 mm a year.
Vienna was originally a Celtic settlement called Wien, derived from the Celtic Vedunia, which means “river in the woods” (see http://www.wien.gv.at/english/history/ — the official website of Vienna), founded around 500 BC, on the site of the present-day central city district. In 15 BC, the city was conquered by the XX Legion “Gemina” and turned into an outpost of the Roman Empire, protecting the borders from attacks by Germanic tribes from the north. The Roman camp was originally called Vindobona (see http://www.wien.gv.at/english/history/). During the last period of Roman rule in Norwich Vindobona was called Fabiana, after the cohors Fabiana who lived there. The Romans occupied Vindobon until the 5th century, after which it was burned.
Around the ruins of Vienna begin to emerge dwellings, and around 800 built Ruprechtskirche – the oldest surviving church in Vienna. In 881 the city is first mentioned under the name of Venice (Wenia). The next mentions are dated back to the 1030s. Having withstood several attacks of Slavs and Hungarians, by X century Vienna became an important trading city.
By the middle of XII century Vienna became the residence of the Austrian Dukes of Babenberg. In 1155, Duke Henry II of the Babenberg family built a house on Am-Hof Square. In 1137-1147 the first church was built on the site of St. Stephen’s Cathedral; the present cathedral was built in the XIII-XV centuries. Since 1278 Vienna is a stronghold of the Habsburg dynasty. In 1469 Emperor Frederick III won a bishopric in Vienna from Pope Paul II (Austria was under the jurisdiction of the bishop of Passau until 1469).
In 1529 Vienna was unsuccessfully besieged by the Turks. With an almost 20-fold superiority of the enemy, the defenders of Vienna were able to defeat him decisively. The heavy defeat of the Turkish army, as it had never known before, put an end to the rapid expansion of the Ottoman Empire in Europe. A century and a half later, in 1683, the allied armies of Catholic countries inflicted on the Turks an even more crushing defeat, after which the Ottoman Empire abandoned conquest forever, and it was after this defeat that its decline began.
In 1679 an epidemic of plague broke out in Vienna. The population of the city of 100 thousand people was reduced by one third. In memory of deliverance from the epidemic in the city center in 1693 was erected a Plague Column. But already in 1713 brought a new wave of the disease. Only in the catacombs beneath the Cathedral of St. Stephen 11,000 victims of the epidemic were buried. This event in the history of the city is reminded today by the majestic building Karlskirche.
Since the XVI century Vienna was the capital of the cosmopolitan state of the Austrian Habsburgs; from the XVII century and especially in the XVIII century, it became a center of a large court bureaucracy. In the XVIII century in Vienna is developing manufactory industry (textile production and production of luxury goods). In the XVIII – early XIX centuries, Vienna – an important center of world culture, especially music. In 1805 and 1809, the troops of Napoleon entered Vienna. In 1814, the city hosted the Vienna Congress, which has revised the political map of Europe.
Vienna saw progress in culture and art in the first half of the 19th century with the rise of Biedermeier, whose founders were the famous Viennese composers, painters, and theatrical figures. Vienna becomes a pan-European music center. The Biedermeier era ends with the revolution of 1848, in which the citizens of Vienna take an active part.
Culture, science and education in Vienna continued to flourish at the end of the 19th century. The University of Vienna and the Academy of Sciences are world-renowned. In 1897, Viennese Bohemians created the Vienna Secession group, which included Coloman Moser, Gustav Klimt, and Otto Wagner.
By the early 20th century. Vienna became the largest city in Europe with a population of more than 2 million people (now 1.67 million). However, political events in Europe have become a turning point for Vienna: with the defeat of Austria-Hungary in 1918, Vienna lost its former influence.
World War I led to the fall of the House of Habsburg and caused the decline of Vienna, generated by inflation and the internal political struggle between the socialists and conservatives. The municipality, balancing the interests of the masses and capital, implemented an extensive program of affordable housing and urban infrastructure, but could not prevent clashes between the parties. In 1928, mass social unrest broke out in Vienna, claiming 89 lives; in 1934, the February Uprising erupted. The Austro-Fascist regime, which came to power in 1934, could not maintain the independence of the country and on the night of March 11 to 12, 1938, Nazi troops entered Vienna (see “Anschluss”).
On April 13, 1945 Vienna was liberated by the Soviet army. In July 1945 an agreement was signed on the zones of occupation in Austria and on the management of Vienna. The city was divided into four sectors of occupation: Soviet, American, English and French; the center was allocated to the joint quadrilateral occupation. The Soviets, who occupied the northeastern outskirts of the city, left in 1955. In the second half of the 1950s, Vienna again deployed massive construction of municipal housing, in 1970-1980, was carried out a major reconstruction of the city center, which resulted in Vienna has avoided the dangers of Brussels. The IAEA, UNIDO and many other international organizations are based in Vienna today.
Public transportation is well developed in Vienna. The metropolitan Vienna subway and the Vienna S-Bahn, as well as the streetcar and bus network, form the backbone of the system. There is a separate streetcar line Vienna-Baden. A network of motorways and railroads connects Vienna to other cities in Austria and Europe. Single Main Station is under construction, long-distance flights serve the main stations: South, North, West and Franz Josef station. Vienna International Airport Vienna-Schwechat is 18 kilometers south-east of the city center and is the largest and most important airport in Austria.
The VIC (Vienna International Center) is the center of the United Nations. The Vienna Opera is one of the most famous in the world. The Hundertwasser House is the masterpiece of the architect Hundertwasser. Hofburg – residence of Holy Roman Emperors.
Scientific institutions and universities
The Zoological Park of Vienna’s aristocracy was established in 1752 at the residence of the Habsburgs, based on a small menagerie that had been in existence since 1540. It is located in the park of the Schönbrunn Palace in the Hitzing district.
– The world-famous orchestra, which annually holds a traditional New Year’s Eve concert. – The famous jazz brass band.
In 2007 Mercer Human Resource Consulting  published an annual study on the quality of life in the world. This is not the first time that Vienna has been ranked first in the European Union in terms of quality of life. This city got the best marks in the following areas: infrastructure, public transport, banks and finances, security, culture and free time. Not only the citizens of Vienna are happy about this excellent index, but it also encourages international companies to set up operations in the city.
Until 1918, politics in Vienna were shaped by the Christian Socialist Party (now defunct), especially Karl Luger, longtime mayor of the city. Today Vienna is a stronghold of the Austrian Social Democrats. They came to power during the First Republic (1918-1934) and carried out a lot of long overdue social reforms, improving the quality of life of hundreds of thousands of workers. The city government’s policies were respected by socialists all over Europe, who called the city “Red Vienna” (Rotes Wien). The only interruption in the Social Democrat rule of the city was between 1934 and 1945, when Austro-Fascism and Nazism took hold, with the anschluss of Austria by Germany.
Vienna is the center of the diocese of the Roman Catholic Church. According to the 2001 census, the city’s population is distributed by religion as follows:
|Protestantism (mainly Lutheranism)||4,7 %|
|Other or no answer||6,3 %|
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, Ludwig van Beethoven, Franz Peter Schubert, Johann Strauss and others lived and worked in Vienna. famous composers, writer Stefan Zweig, physicist Erwin Schrödinger, naturalist Gregor Johann Mendel, the creator of psychoanalysis Sigmund Freud, the creator of individual psychology Alfred Adler, the founder of the so-called Third Vienna School of psychotherapy Victor Frankl (Vienna may be rightly called the capital of psychoanalysis) and many other prominent figures of science and culture.
A relationship akin to “twinning”:
In addition, some parts of Vienna have sister cities or districts in Japan:
and Takarazuka (en), Hyogo (since 1994) and Taito (en), Tokyo (since 1989) and Setagaya (en), Tokyo (since 1985) and Arakawa (en), Tokyo (since 1996) and Gifu (en), Gifu (since 1992) and Katsushika (en), Tokyo (since 1987) and Fukhu (en), Tokyo (since 1992) and Habikino (en), Osaka (since 1995)
- ↑ All the capitals of the world /Compiled by. О. Co-authors O. V. Zykina, L. A. Burlatzkaya, G. A. Galperina, N. V. Ivanova. – Moscow: Veche, 2005. С. 72.
- ↑ Guidebook Le Petit Fute – Austria. Ed. 5-th. – Moscow: Avangard, 2005. С. 67.
1. Inner city ( Innere Stadt ) – 2. Leopoldstadt ( Leopoldstadt ) – 3. Landstraße ( Landstraße ) – 4. Wieden ( Wieden ) – 5. Margareten ( Margareten ) – 6. Mariahilf – 7. Neubau ( Neubau ) – 8. Josefstadt ( Josefstadt ) – 9. Alsergrund – 10. Favoriten – 11. Simmering – 12. Meidling – 13. Hietzing – 14. Penzing – 15. Rudolfsheim-Fünfhaus – 16. Ottakring – 17. Hernals – 18. Währing ( Währing ) – 19. Döbling ( Döbling ) – 20. Brigittenau ( Brigittenau ) – 21. Floridsdorf – 22. Donaustadt – 23. Liesing