The 5 oceans of planet Earth

Oceans of the world – Names, where they are, description, underwater world, photos and videos

World oceans: names, description, area, depth, plants and animals

Planet Earth

The ocean is the largest of all existing bodies of water on Earth or the continuous water envelope of the planet, it makes up most of the Earth’s entire hydrosphere. The world’s oceans occupy more than 70% of the entire surface of planet Earth. These bodies of water have some peculiarities, for example, they are habitats for many living creatures, as well as they have a whole system of currents regulation. All planetary shells constantly interact with the largest bodies of water on Earth.

Map of the oceans and continents of the world

Map of the world’s oceans and continents

Until recently, the world had four oceans, but in 2000 a fifth ocean was identified, which geologists called the Southern Ocean. This article is designed to tell you about all 5 oceans, their features, animals and plants for which these waters are habitats.

Pacific Ocean

Pacific Ocean

Pacific Ocean.

This ocean is the largest on the planet, with an area of more than 165 million square kilometers. This area is larger than the entire land area. It merges with the Southern Ocean in the south and with the Arctic Ocean in the north. Australia, North and South America, and Africa are washed by this ocean. In addition, there are the islands of the Pacific archipelago.

The Pacific Ocean coast is framed by a ring of volcanoes. This ring is called the “ring of fire. This is due to the fact that in the fire zone volcanoes most often erupt, as well as the strongest earthquakes.

The bottom of the Pacific Ocean is constantly changing, as tectonic plates collide with each other, and sometimes “climb” under each other, thus creating storms and hurricanes. Therefore, the name “Pacific” is not at all justified; it is the most restless ocean. Sometimes magma escapes from beneath the Earth’s crust, resulting in the formation of underwater volcanoes. Such a process can lead to the appearance of underwater mountains and islands.

Pacific Ocean

Pacific Ocean

The Pacific Ocean has an unusual topography. There are both troughs formed at the junction of tectonic plates and underwater ridges. “The Challenger Chasm is located in the Mariana Trench and is the deepest point in the Pacific Ocean. It reaches a depth of about 11,000 meters. The oceanic topography is quite different from that of the mainland, as they form in completely different ways.

The formation of the ocean began over 180 million years, which is how long its oldest area has been. The climate of the ocean depends on the proximity of land and the type of air masses. Its different areas have different climates because the ocean is huge in area. Water temperature is also important. It is responsible for the humidity in different regions. Around the equator, the climate is always tropical, and temperatures are high for most of the year. Temperatures are moderate in the northern and southern extremities of the ocean. The change of seasons is clearly expressed there. Typhoons are not a rare phenomenon in the Pacific, which once again emphasizes the nature of the ocean.

Atlantic Ocean on the map

Atlantic Ocean on a map

It is the second largest ocean on the entire globe. Its area is just over 106 million square kilometers, which is 22% of the planetary surface. The ocean is shaped like the letter S. North and South America, Africa and Europe have an Atlantic coast. It is adjoined by many seas, which are part of its area. The ocean merges with all the other oceans: the Arctic Ocean to the north, the Indian Ocean to the southeast, the Pacific Ocean to the southwest, and the young Southern Ocean to the south.

The average depth of the Atlantic Ocean is more than 3.9 kilometers . The Trench (Blue Hole), located near Puerto Rico, is the deepest point of the ocean, at a depth of 8,605 meters. Waters of the Atlantic are the most salty in the entire world’s oceans.

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Blue Hole

Blue Hole

The formation of the ocean began during the collapse of the supercontinent Pangaea, which occurred 130 million years ago. That is, the Atlantic is practically the youngest among the major bodies of water in the world, second only to the Southern Ocean. The history of the ocean is rich; it was thanks to the Atlantic that the Old World learned of the existence of America. This area was once called a sea, but a few centuries ago it was given the status of the ocean.

The largest islands are the British Isles, which number more than 5000 units. There are also large islands like Iceland, Cuba, and Puerto Rico.

Indian Ocean

Indian Ocean on a map

Indian Ocean on the map

The third largest ocean in the world is the Indian Ocean. Its area is more than half the size of the Pacific Ocean. Its size reaches 70 million square kilometers, which equals the area of three continents. Such continents as Asia, Africa and Australia are washed by this ocean. The average depth of the Indian Ocean is more than 3.9 kilometers. However, the deepest point, located in the Sunda Trench, reaches a depth of 7,258 meters. About 20% of the world’s oceans are occupied by the Indian Ocean . The Indian Ocean was originally called the “Eastern Ocean.

The Indian Ocean was formed about 180 million years ago after the breakup of Gondwana, which was an ancient supercontinent. Over the years, the ocean formed to take its present form. The final formation occurred about 35 million years ago. The largest regions of the ocean are less than 80,000,000 years old.

This ocean has no outlet to the north; it is bounded by continents. It has few islands when compared to larger oceans. The ocean is unique in that oxygen saturates the waters almost to the very depths.

The climate of the territory is variable. In the summer and autumn, warm winds blow, and at other times, monsoons and north winds prevail. However, the weather conditions in the area are the warmest.

Seven countries extract various minerals in the Indian Ocean. More than 45% of the world’s oil reserves are found there.

The largest archipelago is the Seychelles. Most of them are coral or granite islands, with only endemics. The greatest diversity of flora is found near the coral reefs. In total, there are 115 islands, which are home to exotic animals such as sea birds and turtles. According to geologists, most of the species found in this ocean are endemic.

Southern Ocean on a map

Southern Ocean on a map

It is the youngest ocean on the planet, officially recognized only in 2000. The reason for such a decision by geologists was the fact that currents isolated the ecosystem of the body of water from the rest of the oceans. The Southern Ocean washes only one continent, Antarctica, and merges with the Pacific, Indian and Atlantic Oceans. The Southern Ocean is the fourth largest; it is slightly larger than the Arctic Ocean. It covers an area of 20,000,000 square kilometers.

The South Sandwich Trough is the location of the deepest point of the waters, which is at a depth of 7,230 meters.

The water temperature is extremely low at only +5 degrees, which of course keeps the water from freezing.

Arctic Ocean

Arctic Ocean on a map

Arctic Ocean on the map

Many geologists refuse to call this body of water an ocean, because it has too small an area of only 14 million square kilometers. It is notable for the fact that the North Pole stretches across the ocean. The water area can be called shallow, with an average depth of 1,200 meters. The deepest point reaches a depth of 4665 meters, it is located in the Nansen Basin. North America, Asia and Europe are washed by this ocean.

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Almost all the year drifting ice covers the ocean, reaching a width of more than three meters. This ice melts only partially in summer.

Arctic Ocean

Arctic Ocean

The Arctic Ocean is used for industrial and commercial shipping by the following countries: Russia, Canada and the United States. Geoscientists are actively studying this ocean. Their goal is to identify new species of living marine organisms. Innovative technologies will help.

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How many and which oceans are there on Earth? Map, list, characteristics and underwater world

The ocean is the largest object of the hydrosphere and is part of the World Ocean, which covers about 71% of the surface of our planet. The oceans wash the shores of the continents, have a system of water circulation and have other specific features. The oceans of the world are in constant interaction with all the shells of the Earth.

Map of the world’s oceans and continents

Some sources indicate that the world’s oceans are divided into 4 oceans, but in 2000 the International Hydrographic Organization identified a fifth, the Southern Ocean. This article provides a list of all 5 oceans on planet Earth in order, from the largest by area to the smallest, with the name, location on the map, and main characteristics.

Pacific Ocean

Pacific Ocean on a map of Earth/Wikipedia

The Pacific Ocean is one of the five oceans of the world. It is the largest ocean on our planet, with an area of 165.25 million km². It stretches from the Arctic Ocean in the north to the Southern Ocean in the south, and washes such parts of the world as Asia, Australia, North America and South America, as well as several Pacific Islands.

Because of its large size, the Pacific Ocean has a unique and diverse topography. It also plays an important role in shaping weather patterns around the world and modern economies.

The ocean floor is constantly changing through the movement and subduction of tectonic plates. Currently, the oldest known area of the Pacific Ocean is about 180 million years old.

Geologically speaking, the region surrounding the Pacific Ocean is sometimes called the Pacific Volcanic Ring of Fire. The region has this name because it is the world’s largest area of volcanism and earthquakes. The Pacific is subject to violent geologic activity because much of its floor is in subduction zones, where the boundaries of some tectonic plates are pushed under others after collision. There are also some hotspot areas where magma from the Earth’s mantle is pushed through the Earth’s crust, creating submarine volcanoes that can eventually form islands and seamounts.

The Pacific Ocean has varied bottom topography, consisting of ocean ridges and deep-sea troughs that have formed in hot spots below the surface. The topography of the ocean differs greatly from the major continents and islands. The deepest point of the Pacific Ocean is called the Challenger Chasm, and it is located in the Mariana Trench, at a depth of nearly 11,000 meters. The largest island in the Pacific Ocean is New Guinea.

The ocean’s climate varies greatly depending on latitude, the presence of land, and the types of air masses moving over its waters. Ocean surface temperature also plays a role in climate because it affects the availability of moisture in different regions. Near the equator, the climate is tropical, humid, and warm for most of the year. The far north of the Pacific and the far south are more temperate, with large seasonal differences in weather patterns. In addition, some regions are dominated by seasonal trade winds that affect the climate. Tropical cyclones and typhoons also form in the Pacific Ocean.

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Marine ecosystems in the Pacific Ocean are virtually the same as those in other oceans on Earth, except for local water temperatures and salinity. The pelagic zone of the ocean is home to marine animals such as fish, marine mammals, and plankton. Invertebrate organisms and scavengers live on the bottom. Coral reef habitats can be found in sunny, shallow ocean areas near the coast. The Pacific Ocean is the environment that is home to the greatest diversity of living organisms on the planet.

Atlantic Ocean

Atlantic Ocean on a map of Earth/Wikipedia

The Atlantic Ocean is the second largest ocean on Earth, with a total area (including adjacent seas) of 106.46 million km². It covers about 22% of the surface area of the planet. The ocean has an elongated S-shape and stretches between North and South America in the west and Europe and Africa in the east. It connects with the Arctic Ocean to the north, the Pacific Ocean to the southwest, the Indian Ocean to the southeast, and the Southern Ocean to the south. The average depth of the Atlantic Ocean is 3,736m, and the deepest point is located in the Puerto Rico Ocean Trench, at a depth of 8,742m. The Atlantic Ocean has the highest water salinity of all the oceans of the world.

Its climate is characterized by warm or cool water that circulates in different currents. Water depth and winds also have a significant influence on weather conditions on the surface of the ocean. Strong Atlantic hurricanes are known to develop off the coast of Cape Verde in Africa, and head toward the Caribbean Sea from August through November.

The time when the supercontinent Pangaea broke up, about 130 million years ago, was the beginning of the formation of the Atlantic Ocean. Geologists have determined that it is the second youngest of the world’s five oceans. This ocean has played a very important role in connecting the Old World to the newly explored Americas since the late 15th century.

The main feature of the bottom of the Atlantic Ocean is an underwater mountain range called the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, which extends from Iceland in the north to about 58°S and has a maximum width of about 1,600 km. The water depth over the ridge is less than 2,700 meters in most places, and several of the ridge’s mountain peaks rise above the water to form islands.

The Atlantic Ocean flows into the Pacific Ocean, but their habitats are not always the same due to water temperature, ocean currents, sunlight, nutrients, salinity, etc. The Atlantic Ocean has coastal and open ocean habitats. Its coastal ecosystems are located along coastlines and extend to continental shelves. Marine flora is usually concentrated in the upper ocean waters, with coral reefs, mangroves, seaweed forests, and seagrasses closer to the coast.

The Atlantic Ocean has an important modern significance. The construction of the Panama Canal, located in Central America, allowed large ships to pass through the waterways, from Asia through the Pacific to the east coast of North and South America through the Atlantic Ocean. This led to a revitalization of trade between Europe, Asia, South America, and North America. In addition, there are deposits of gas, oil, and gems at the bottom of the Atlantic Ocean.

Indian Ocean

Indian Ocean on a map of Earth/Wikipedia

The Indian Ocean is the third largest ocean on the planet and has an area of 70.56 million km². It is located between Africa, Asia, Australia and the Southern Ocean. The Indian Ocean has an average depth of 3,963 m, and the Sunda Trench is the deepest trench, with a maximum depth of 7,258 m. The Indian Ocean occupies about 20% of the world’s oceans.

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The formation of this ocean is a consequence of the breakup of the supercontinent Gondwana, which began about 180 million years ago. 36 million years ago, the Indian Ocean assumed its present configuration. Although it first opened about 140 million years ago, almost all the basins of the Indian Ocean are less than 80 million years old.

It is landlocked in the Northern Hemisphere and does not extend into Arctic waters. It has fewer islands and narrower continental shelves than the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans. Below the surface layers, especially in the north, the water in the ocean is extremely low in oxygen.

The climate of the Indian Ocean varies greatly from north to south. For example, monsoons dominate in the northern part, over the equator. From October to April there are strong northeasterly winds, while from May to October there are southerly and westerly winds. The Indian Ocean also has the warmest weather of all five oceans in the world.

The ocean depths contain about 40% of the world’s marine oil reserves, and seven countries are currently extracting minerals from the ocean.

Seychelles is an archipelago in the Indian Ocean consisting of 115 islands, and most of them are granite islands and coral islands. On the granite islands, most species are endemic, and the coral islands have a coral reef ecosystem, where the biological diversity of marine life is greatest. The Indian Ocean has island fauna that includes sea turtles, seabirds, and many other exotic animals. Much of the marine life in the Indian Ocean is endemic.

The entire Indian Ocean marine ecosystem is facing species declines as water temperatures continue to rise, which in turn leads to a 20% decline in phytoplankton, on which the marine food chain is highly dependent.

Southern Ocean

Southern Ocean on a map of Earth/Wikipedia

In 2000, the International Hydrographic Organization designated the world’s fifth youngest ocean, the Southern Ocean, from the southern Atlantic, Indian, and Pacific Oceans. The new Southern Ocean completely surrounds Antarctica and extends from its coastline northward to 60°S. The Southern Ocean is now the fourth largest of the five oceans in the world, exceeded only by the Arctic Ocean.

In recent years, much oceanographic research has focused on ocean currents, first because of El Niño and then because of a broader interest in global warming. One study determined that currents near Antarctica isolate the Southern Ocean as a separate ecosystem, so it was designated as a separate, fifth ocean.

The Southern Ocean has an area of approximately 20.3 million km². The deepest point is 7,235 meters deep and it is located in the South Sandwich Trough.

The water temperature in the Southern Ocean ranges from -2° C to +10° C. It also contains the largest and most powerful cold surface current on Earth, the Antarctic Circumpolar Current, which moves eastward and is 100 times the flow of all the world’s rivers.

Despite the highlighting of this new ocean, it is likely that the debate about the number of oceans will continue into the future. After all, there is only one “World Ocean” since all 5 (or 4) oceans on our planet are interconnected.

Arctic Ocean

Arctic Ocean on a map of Earth/Wikipedia

The Arctic Ocean is the smallest of the world’s five oceans and has an area of 14.06 million km². Its average depth is 1,205 m, and its deepest point is in the underwater Nansen Basin, at a depth of 4,665 m. The Arctic Ocean is located between Europe, Asia and North America. In addition, most of its waters are north of the Arctic Circle. The geographic North Pole is at the center of the Arctic Ocean.

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While the South Pole is located on the continent, the North Pole is covered by water. For most of the year, the Arctic Ocean is almost entirely covered by drifting polar ice, which is about three meters thick. This glacier usually melts during the summer months, but only partially.

Because of its small size, many oceanographers do not consider it an ocean. Instead, some scientists suggest that it is a sea that is mostly enclosed by continents. Others believe it is a partially enclosed coastal body of water of the Atlantic Ocean. These theories are not widely accepted, and the International Hydrographic Organization considers the Arctic Ocean to be one of the five oceans of the world.

The Arctic Ocean has the lowest water salinity of all the oceans on Earth because of its low evaporation rate and fresh water coming from streams and rivers that feed the ocean, diluting the salt concentration in the water.

A polar climate dominates this ocean. Consequently, winters exhibit relatively stable weather with low temperatures. The best known characteristics of this climate are polar nights and polar days.

It is believed that the Arctic Ocean may hold about 25% of our planet’s total natural gas and oil reserves. Geologists have also found that there are significant deposits of gold and other minerals. The abundance of several species of whales, fish, and seals also make the region attractive to the fishing industry.

The Arctic Ocean is home to several animal habitats, including endangered mammals and fish. The region’s fragile ecosystem is one of the factors that make the fauna so sensitive to climate change. Some of these species are endemic and irreplaceable. The summer months bring an abundance of phytoplankton, which in turn feeds the zooplankton at the base of the food chain, which eventually ends up in large land and marine mammals.

Recent developments in technology are allowing scientists to study the depths of the world’s oceans in new ways. This research is needed to help scientists study and possibly prevent the catastrophic effects of climate change in these areas, as well as to discover new species of living organisms.


Question and Answer (FAQ).

The world’s oceans are the main, continuous, but not continuous part of the planet’s hydrosphere that connects all of Earth’s oceans together.

Depending on the source, there are 4 or 5 oceans: 1) the Pacific Ocean; 2) the Atlantic Ocean; 3) the Indian Ocean; 4) the Arctic Ocean; and 5) the Southern Ocean, which is the sum of the southern parts of the Pacific, Atlantic and Indian Oceans between the shores of Antarctica and 60° south latitude.

The largest ocean on Earth in terms of area is the Pacific Ocean (165.25 million km²), and the smallest is the Arctic Ocean (14.06 million km²).

The Pacific Ocean is the deepest ocean in the world, both in its maximum depth of 10,994 meters (the Mariana Trench) and its average depth of 4,280 meters. The Arctic Ocean is the shallowest ocean in the world, with a maximum depth of 5,569 m (the Molloy Chasm) and an average depth of 1,225 m.

The Arctic Ocean is considered the coldest ocean on the planet, with an average water temperature of less than 1°C.

With an average water temperature of 19.4°C, the warmest ocean on Earth is the Pacific Ocean. By the maximum recorded water temperature, the first place belongs to the Indian Ocean, where in the Persian Gulf, in summer, the water temperature reaches 35.6 ° C.

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