The main characteristics of European cuisine
European cuisine is the most widespread today all over the world. And no wonder because it includes the most popular, best dishes of not just one country, but all of Europe – France, England, Italy, Belgium, Germany, Austria and others. And that is why restaurants offering dishes of European cuisine are deservedly popular, because in them you can without leaving the table to make a whole journey through Europe, albeit gastronomic. At one restaurant you can try mushroom cream soup from France or Hungarian goulash for the first course, schnitzel from Germany for the second course, and Italian tiramisu or Spanish tortilla for the dessert.
Historically, modern European cuisine has absorbed the national peculiarities of various European countries. Nevertheless it is impossible to speak about common European cuisine, because many different peoples inhabit the territory of Europe, and climatic and geographical conditions influence the life and cuisine of each of them. “Southern cuisine of Western Europe differs from that of Northern Europe, like Italian and Spanish cuisine differs from Finnish cuisine. Southern cuisine is spicy, colorful, flavorful, more restrained and simple cuisine of the North. The peculiarity of European cuisine is the use of sauces and a large number of vegetable dishes. Europeans, unlike Oriental nations, use less seasoning, spices and all kinds of spices in order to preserve the taste qualities of the products themselves.
European cuisine originated in Greece. Greek cuisine is characterized by the use of olive oil, raisins, lemons, tomatoes, walnuts, lots of garlic and spices, the presence of fish and fatty foods.
The culinary art from Greece together with the cooks moved to Ancient Rome, and in this connection Italian and Greek cuisine today have quite a lot in common. Italy is recognized as the cradle of European culinary excellence. And in general, the cuisines of Portugal, Italy, France and Spain share common features. First of all, it is the use of all kinds of peppers, fennel, ginger, sage, thyme, tarragon, vanilla and cinnamon. Vegetables are always present: sweet peppers, tomatoes, cucumbers and fruits: oranges, grapes, figs. Plenty of seafood and fish dishes, as well as beef, lamb, pork and poultry.
But not only the southern European countries can be called the trendsetters of European cuisine. For example, from Austria the coffee fashion has spread all over Europe. Belgium, Germany and the Czech Republic have accustomed Europeans to beer. From England came the love of tea.
European cuisines differ markedly from country to country, from region to region, from living conditions, cultural traditions, and food preferences, but they all share a “European”, inland origin. Despite the differences, common to European cuisine is the abundance of meat and vegetable dishes, as well as the secondary role of various seasonings and sauces during cooking (due to the characteristic desire to preserve the true taste of ingredients), the abundance of products using wheat flour. In addition, it is not uncommon to eat “aperitifs” – quality alcoholic beverages that enhance the appetite and improve digestion – before a dish is eaten. Eggs are widely used in European cuisine – fried, boiled, as one of the ingredients of flour dishes, and even as the basis for some drinks. Throughout the centuries there have been integration processes during which dishes from different European cuisines find approval and admirers in the countries that are characterized by different culinary traditions. European cuisine can be conditionally subdivided into East-European, North-European, South-European and West-European.
European cuisine differs from the Eastern European cuisine with much less number of spices and seasonings. Europeans strive to preserve the taste of each component. According to doctors, the European cuisine is much healthier than the Eastern. In Eastern cuisine – the food is fried in a variety of sauces, and it changes the taste of the product and makes it harmful to health.
In Europe, the food is natural and light. The sauce is not the base of the dish, but just one of the ingredients. There are a lot of sauces. One of the main components of European cooking is French. There are more than 3,000 sauces in this cuisine; they have all the zest, soul and pride of the cooks. French cuisine has had a great influence on European cuisine in general – the use of exquisite sauces that give dishes a unique taste. Also, the use of alcoholic beverages (champagne, wine, cognac and liquor) in cooking, a variety of delicacies such as cream soups, various kinds of cheese, oysters and, of course, the love for salads comes from France. A peculiarity of European cuisine is the use of a large number of vegetables. The most important difference of the European cuisine is the European standards in cooking. These are natural and fresh products, no chemical additives. Europeans take care of their health and with food – without unnecessary fat, with healthy natural seasonings.
Austria gave the world the morning coffee. Austrian coffee houses were the first and after their example modern European cafes were opened. Italy, of course, is pizza and pasta, which have also gained a strong place in European cuisine. England contributed roast beef and steak, and one of its trends (Yokshire cuisine) shared with the world air pudding. Goulash is a meat dish (pork, beef, lamb) with the addition of paprika and flour native to Hungary. It is something between a thick soup and stew. Appetizers and main courses with a variety of sausages, frankfurters and wieners come to European cuisine from Germany. Chocolate, cheese fondue, and Swiss roulade are Swiss contributions.
Another characteristic feature of European cuisine is a large number of baked or fried meat dishes: roast beef, escalopes, steaks, linguettes, entrecôtes, schnitzels… The list could go on and on. As a side dish vegetables, cereals and a variety of flour products (vermicelli, pasta, noodles) are usually used. A variety of meat (with ham, sausages) and sweet (with jam, jam) sandwiches are not forgotten in European cuisine. Gourmets prefer to wash down the main course with wine or beer. The main course is garnished with vegetables or pasta. With sweets they prefer to wash down with hot coffee or tea.
Other typical and famous dishes of the European cuisine which are impossible not to mention are the dishes cooked on coals with spicy tomato sauce (barbecue), chilled soup made of tomatoes, cucumbers, peppers with vinegar, garlic, and olive oil from Italy (gazpacho); thick pasta stuffed with chicken, meat or mushroom stuffing (cannelloni); thin, translucent slices of raw beef fillet with marinade or sauce (carpaccio), vegetable thick soup with pasta (minestrone).
When serving European cuisine, it is also important to serve the table itself with the indispensable attributes – cutlery (spoons, forks and knives) and napkins.
Date of addition: 2018-06-27 ; views: 9660 ; We will help in writing your paper!
European cuisine: history and features of dishes and recipes
European cuisine absorbs the traditions of all the countries of Europe: from Ireland to Turkey. It is so colorful and multifaceted, how different are the customs, traditions and climate of the countries that make up Europe. What does European cuisine have in common? How did the culinary traditions develop? What is the basis of the famous European recipes?
European cuisine is one of the most popular in the world. The best recipes of the European cuisine are known to any self-respecting chef. And a visit to a European restaurant can be compared to a fascinating journey across the continent.
Varieties of European cuisine
Europe is diverse in its climatic features, customs, way of life, so it is difficult to unequivocally answer the question: European cuisine – what cuisine? This term refers to culinary traditions of all European countries, but greater attention is usually paid to its western part and Mediterranean Sea. Conventionally, the cuisine of Europe can be divided into several directions, using the principle of territorial proximity:
- Northern European (Britain, Scandinavia, the Baltics), based on fish and seafood, and the mild climate of the Baltics has diversified the recipes of European cuisine with the gifts of nature: vegetables, berries, cereals, mushrooms;
- Central European cuisine (Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Austria, Germany), which is characterized by a predilection for meat sausages and vegetable side dishes, sweet pastries and coffee, fruit liqueurs and beer;
- south-european, or Mediterranean (Italy, Greece, Spain, Portugal, Croatia, Serbia, Turkey – each of these countries has its own very colorful dishes, but the basics of European cuisine with southern character are common: plenty of fish and meat, quality dairy products, vegetables, herbs and fruit, the cult of olive oil and wine);
Mediterranean cuisine is characterized by generous nature and a sunny, mild climate.
- Eastern European (Russia, Ukraine, Armenia, Georgia, Moldova, Bulgaria) are united into a group rather territorially, but as in Russian cuisine we can find borrowings from Georgian or Armenian, and vice versa.
European and Russian cuisines gravitate toward the natural flavor of foods, while the more willful cuisine of the Transcaucasus has adopted the spicy flavors of Asia.
- Western European cuisine (France, Belgium, Holland, Switzerland), famous for its cheeses and dairy products of agriculture, especially the cuisine of France, which on the one hand is characterized by culinary extravagance and simple colors of Provence, on the other – by aristocracy and refined design of European cuisine.
Formation of European cuisine
Development of European cuisine started already in Middle Ages. Perfection which was reached by recipes of European cuisine can be explained by the cooks’ skills who served at the courts of kings, kings, noblemen. The cuisine of the common people has always been more modest and simpler. For example poor people couldn’t afford to eat meat every day that’s why in European cuisine there were so many products taken from the nature – mushrooms, berries, fruits.
If you are interested in using berries in dishes, then this article will introduce you to all kinds of desserts. And, of course, without berries can’t do without sweet pastries. We will tell you about it here.
European tastes have been transformed from epoch to epoch under the influence of numerous historical events and confluence of cultures, however the European cuisine is called classical because we and our neighbors on the continent were always very meticulous about food and demanding in the quality and freshness of products.
The main dishes and the best products of Europe
What dishes are part of European cuisine? The most famous and best dishes of European cuisine are made of meat, usually beef. The cult of meat is connected with inaccessibility and high cost of this product. European distinctive feature is the way of preparing the meat on an open fire, with sauce and marinade. Meat is traditionally served with side dishes of fresh and stewed vegetables, cereals, pasta.
Even today the first courses of European cuisine – soups – are indispensable on the table of any European.
Recipes differ in different parts of the continent: it is a thick bean chowder, a refreshing cold gazpacho, a rich chicken broth and fish soup. But the very fact of European love of soup can be explained by the historical sedentariness of peoples, the attachment to their hearth and their fields. Not surprisingly, farming features have enriched our table with dishes of eggs, poultry, and dairy products.
A separate chapter in the mainland cookbook is European salads. The popularity and variety of salads is explained, firstly, by a predilection for natural products, healthy eating, harmonious combinations, and secondly, the abundance of sauces, which European cooks owe to the French. Recipes of salads in European cuisine are based on vegetables and greens, often fish, cheeses, flour products (pasta, croutons), legumes are added.
The inhabitants of the European part of the world are very fond of desserts. Not a single feast can do without dessert, sweet things are the logical conclusion of the meal.
Meringue, eclairs, waffles, mascarpone, and vanilla ice cream are considered the highest achievements of the confectionary art around the world.
Low-alcoholic drinks: wine and beer are of great importance in European cuisine. They are supposed to stimulate appetite, improve digestion, enrich the taste of food, warm or refresh.
European cuisine in pictures is ruddy puffed pies with toppings and the thinnest pizza with red tomato circles. It’s a thick, juicy slice of fried meat and thin frog legs. This is the legendary Caesar and no less famous borscht.
Modern European cuisine, despite its popularity, has unfortunately absorbed only the “peaks. The recipes of European restaurants are unified and uniform. Meanwhile, leafing through the cookbooks of the peoples of Europe is a fascinating activity. It is interesting to study photos and menus of European cuisine, to learn the history of recipes, to try new combinations of flavors. And, of course, it is worth it to make culinary journeys to different parts of Europe again and again with your cuisine.