25 of the most incredible and inspiring examples of successful symbiosis of architecture and design from around the world
Join Architecture RSS feed RSS feed Read on Facebook Read on Twitter Read on VKontakte Read on Google+ Read on LiveJournal Rating: +2034 | Author: novate | Entries: 2805 | Participants 368 | Rules +1 4 +4 +4 -1 0 25 most incredible and inspiring examples of successful symbiosis of architecture and design from around the world Architecture and interior Architecture Subscribe Share on Facebook Tell VKontakte 25 most incredible and inspiring examples of successful symbiosis of architecture and design that everyone should see 25 most incredible and inspiring examples of successful symbiosis of architecture and design that everyone should see Architecture is often high-quality and comfortable, but lacks an artistic component. However, when stunning architecture is combined with incredible design, the work becomes a true masterpiece. We’ve tried to make a selection of the 25 most incredible and inspiring examples of successful symbiosis of architecture and design that everyone should see.
1. ‘Cubic Houses’ in Rotterdam, Holland
‘Cubic Houses’ in Rotterdam, Holland
‘Cubic Houses’ in Rotterdam ‘Cubic Houses’ is a complex of houses built in 1984 in Rotterdam to an original design by architect Piet Blom. The most extraordinary and daring step by the author was the decision to turn the parallelepipeds of the houses by 45 degrees and put their corners on hexagonal pylons. The total composition consists of 38 similar houses and two huge inverted super-cubes, all interconnected with each other. Each house consists of three floors with entrances, living rooms with kitchens, bedrooms with bathrooms and small terraced gardens. “Cube houses” are considered the main attraction of modern Rotterdam.
2. The ‘Forest Spiral’ residential complex in Darmstadt, Germany
The residential complex ‘Forest Spiral’ in Darmstadt, Germany
The residential complex in Darmstadt is a spiral-shaped housing built in 2000 in Darmstadt, Germany, according to the design of the famous Austrian architect-artist Friedensreich Hundertwasser. The main concept of the complex is a fusion of nature and urban environment – on the roof of the complex grow beech, maple and various shrubs, and in the courtyard there is a small pond with frogs and fish. The 12-storey building has 105 apartments, each of which is unique. The facade of the “Forest Spiral” is decorated with ceramic panels and columns of all colors of the rainbow, and inside the house there are no straight lines and sharp angles.
3. Salvador Dali Theatre and Museum in Figueres, Spain
Salvador Dali Theatre and Museum in Figueres, Spain
Salvador Dali Theatre-Museum in Figueres, Spain A theater complex dedicated to the work of the great surrealist painter Salvador Dali was built in Figueres in 1974. The museum ensemble includes the museum building itself, the Galatea Tower, and part of the city’s medieval walls. The silhouette of the Dali Theatre-Museum has become a true symbol of the international pop-art trend, and its geodesic dome cannot be confused with anything else. The museum has the largest and most diverse collection of the great master’s works, based on his own collection. Also, under the dome of the museum there is a crypt with the embalmed body of the artist, which is of interest to true fans of his work.
4. National Bird’s Nest Stadium in Beijing, China
National Bird’s Nest Stadium
The Bird’s Nest National Stadium The main Olympic venue in Beijing was built in the run-up to the Games in 2008. The stadium bowl has a very interesting and unusual appearance which was made possible by the construction of high quality steel covered with polymers. Fans entering the stadium for the first time will be surprised by the detail and integrity of the main symbol of the new Beijing – even the lights along the paths leading to the entrances to the stadium look like miniature bird’s nests, thus emphasizing the overall concept of the facility.
5. Hadlgrímskirkja Lutheran Church in Reykjavík, Iceland
Hadlgrímskirkja Lutheran Church in Reykjavík, Iceland
Hadlgrímskirkja Lutheran Church in Reykjavík: interior of the premises The Hadlgrímskirkja Lutheran Church, located in the heart of Reykjavík, is the fourth tallest building in Iceland. It was named after the Icelandic poet and spiritual leader Hadlgrímur Pietursson. Work on the church began in 1945 and was not completed until 1986, an all-time record for Iceland. The highly unusual shape of the church building has become one of the symbols of the city of Reykjavik.
6. The skyscraper Grand Lisboa in Macao, China
The Grand Lisboa skyscraper in Macau, China
The Grand Lisboa Skyscraper in Macau: night scene of the 47-story Grand Lisboa skyscraper that reaches 258 meters in height, the tallest building in the Macau autonomous Chinese territory. The ultra-modern hotel building, which resembles a lotus flower, was built in 2008 in the style of postmodernism. The complex consists of 650 hotel rooms and an eight-story spherical podium opened in 2006, where you can play casino, store and spend time in the expensive restaurants and bars. The Grand Lisboa Hotel has become a major attraction in Macau.
7. Opera House in Sydney, Australia
Sydney Opera House, Australia
Sydney Opera House at sunset The Sydney Opera House, built in 1973 by Danish architect Jorn Utzon in the Expressionist style, is considered one of the most famous and easily recognizable buildings in the world. The Sydney Opera House is also the most important attraction of the entire continent. Two of the largest shell vaults form the ceilings of the two main halls: the Concert Hall and the Opera House. In the other halls, the ceilings are formed by smaller vaults. The vaporous roof shells give the theater a unique character. On June 28, 2007 the Opera House in Sydney was designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site.
8. Casa Batlló in Barcelona, Spain
The Casa Batlló in Barcelona, Spain
The beautiful residential house of Baglio in Barcelona was built in 1877 by Antoni Gaudi for the textile magnate Josep Balho y Casanovas. The main feature of the Baglio house is considered by many to be the complete absence of straight lines. Undulating outlines are evident in both the decorative details of the facade and in the interior design. There is much debate as to what the main façade of the building expresses, but the comparison of the Casa Batlló with Gaudí’s favourite character, the enormous dragon, is probably the most accurate. In 2005 the artistic monument of Spain was included in the list of UNESCO World Heritage Sites.
9. Cooper University branch in New York, USA
Cooper University branch in New York, USA
The Cooper University in New York: interior of the building The Cooper University in New York was designed by the American architect and Pritzker Prize Winner Tom Mayne and completed in 2009. The building itself is an example of the harmonious combination of the brutal facade with the spacious and light interior. Interestingly, Cooper University is the only free private university in the United States.
10. Pyramid of the Louvre in Paris, France
Pyramid of the Louvre in Paris, France
Pyramid of the Louvre in Paris The glass pyramid of the Louvre, built in 1989 in the courtyard of the Napoleon designed by the famous American architect Bei Yuimin, serves as the main entrance to the famous museum and is one of the symbols of modern Paris. Around the main pyramid are three smaller pyramids – they are used only as portholes. Their facets are made entirely of glass, which provides the best possible illumination of the underground vestibule. There are also decorative fountains around the large pyramid, which together make an unbelievable impression on tourists.
11. Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum in Bilbao, Spain
Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum in Bilbao, Spain
Solomon Guggenheim Museum in Bilbao The Guggenheim Museum in Bilbao is a huge exhibition space of stone, glass and titanium piles, following the contours of the Nervión River. Since the design and construction of this huge complex in Bilbao received little press coverage, the opening of the building in 1997 caused an explosion of excitement among the local population and art lovers alike. It was this incredible building that elevated its author, American Frank Gehry, to the rank of the great architects of our time.
Atomium in Brussels, Belgium
The ‘Atomium’ attraction in Brussels, Belgium.
Atomium’ attraction in Brussels: Night scene The Atomium in the Belgian capital was built specially for the opening of the 1958 World’s Fair as a symbol of the new atomic age and the peaceful use of atomic energy. The unusual structure was first coated in aluminum, but after the completion of the renovation work in 2006 the steel shell became the main cladding material. “Atomium” consists of nine atoms-cabins combined into a single fragment of the iron crystal lattice, enlarged 165 billion times. The height of the Atomium is just over 100 meters, and the total weight of the structure is about 2,400 tons.
13. The Lotus Temple in New Delhi, India
The Lotus Temple in New Delhi, India
The Lotus Temple in New Delhi: Night shot The Lotus Temple, built in 1986, is located in the Indian city of New Delhi. The huge structure of the temple, covered with snow-white marble, is shaped like a blooming lotus flower. This masterpiece of modern architecture is considered one of the most popular attractions in India. Curiously enough, recently the Lotus Temple has officially surpassed its main “competitor” – the famous Taj Mahal Mausoleum in popularity among tourists.
14. Hotel Burj al Arab in Dubai, UAE
Hotel-sail “Burj al Arab” “Burj al Arab” (translated from Arabic – Arab Tower) is a chic, modern hotel located in the open sea at a distance of about 280 meters from the shoreline of Dubai. The base for this hotel is a specially erected artificial island, which is connected to the land by a bridge. “Burj al Arab”, reaching 321 m in height, for a long time was considered the highest hotel in the world, until 2008 when another Dubai hotel – 333-metre “Rose Tower” was erected.
15. Sagrada Familia (Temple of the Holy Family) in Barcelona, Spain
The Sagrada Familia (Sagrada Familia) in Barcelona, Spain
The Sagrada Familia (Sagrada Familia) in Barcelona The Sagrada Familia, located in Catalonia’s capital city, was designed by the great Antoni Gaudi with private donations from 1882 until today, making it the most famous long-standing building in history. The decoration and decor of the building is breathtaking in its attention to detail, its wealth of all kinds of themes and its extremely harmonious combination of different architectural styles – Art Nouveau, Gothic, Baroque and Oriental architecture are all represented here. Only when you see this stunning building, you can appreciate the meticulousness and love with which the author treated every inch of his work. It is amazing that even while still under construction, the Sagrada Familia has become a major landmark in Barcelona.
16. Jay Pritzker Pavilion in Chicago, USA
Jay Pritzker Pavilion in Chicago, USA
Jay Pritzker Pavilion in Chicago from a bird’s eye view The Jay Pritzker Pavilion is a critical element in the transformation of downtown Chicago’s train stations into a unified Millennium Park structure. The event space is shaped by stainless steel ribbons flowing seamlessly into a steel tube tunnel that regulates sound distribution through a unique audio system. The pavilion and adjacent lawn can accommodate 7,000 people. The main bandstand is designed to create the acoustics of an indoor concert hall. The Chicago Pavilion complex was a truly landmark project in architect Frank Gehry’s creative biography.
17. The ‘Cloud Gate’ public sculpture in Chicago, USA
The ‘Cloud Gate’ public sculpture in Chicago, USA
The ‘Cloud Gate’ sculpture is located in Chicago’s central AT&T Plaza in Millennium Park. The author of the idea of such an unusual public facility was the famous British sculptor and artist Anish Kapoor. Soon after the official opening in 2006, the sculpture “Cloud Gate” was unofficially nicknamed for its shape “bean”. The surface of the object is formed by 168 sheets of stainless steel; its dimensions are 10 x 20 x 13 m, and its weight is about 100 tons. Many believe that the prototype that inspired the sculptor for this original work was a drop of mercury.
18. Walt Disney Concert Hall in Los Angeles, USA
Walt Disney Concert Hall in Los Angeles, USA.
Walt Disney Concert Hall in Los Angeles is a bird’s eye view Frank Gehry was given the opportunity to design a new concert hall back in 1988, but it didn’t open until 2003. Today, critics and those far from the music world agree that the result was worth all those years of waiting. This extraordinary wave-shaped complex, with its façade covered in the architect’s favorite material, stainless steel, reflects the architect’s passion for swimming. The concert hall towers over Grand Avenue and is one of the symbols of modern architecture in Los Angeles.
19. Crooked House in Sopot, Poland
Crooked house in Sopot, Poland
Crooked house in Sopot: night shot The crooked house was built in 2004 in the Polish city of Sopot by local architects Szotinski and Zalewski. It was inspired by the drawings of illustrators Jan Schanzer and Per Oskar Dahlberg. The house fully lives up to its name, not having a single right angle or flat surface. When seeing this structure, many tourists get the impression that either the house has melted in the sun or they see the reflection of an ordinary house in a crooked mirror.
20. Music Museum in Seattle, USA
Music Museum in Seattle, USA
The Seattle Music Museum is a bird’s-eye view of the incredible Seattle Music Museum opened in 2000. When designing the museum, architect Frank Gehry was inspired by the shape of the guitar of the iconic American musician Jimi Hendrix, which he constantly broke after his concerts. The broken musical instrument is the basis of the appearance of this amazing complex made of stainless steel and aluminum in every possible shade of purple, silver and gold.
21. Kunsthaus Museum in Graz, Austria
Kunst Haus Museum in Graz, Austria: a bird’s eye view
Kunsthaus Museum Graz: night view The Kunsthaus is a contemporary art museum opened as part of the European Capital of Culture program in Graz, Austria, in 2003. The modern building is built in blob style, which stands in stark contrast to the rather traditional surrounding buildings. The base of the building is made of reinforced concrete and the outer skin is made of blue plastic panels. Particularly noteworthy is the museum’s enormous 900-square-meter media façade. It consists of small luminous elements, which can be programmed with the help of a computer. In this way, installations and even movies can be projected on the facade.
22. The Mary Axe skyscraper in London, UK
The Mary Axe skyscraper in London, UK
The Mary Axe skyscraper, nicknamed the “cucumber house,” was built in London in 2004 by Baron Norman Foster. Located in the financial center of London, the building is considered one of the most environmentally friendly in the world and has the status of “the greenest skyscraper. The main area of the “Cucumber” is occupied by numerous office premises of Swiss Re. The first floors are open to all visitors, while the upper floors house expensive cafes and restaurants with panoramic views of the city. It is worth noting that Mary Axe has become the most expensive building in Britain, costing the Swiss insurance company a record £630 million.
23. Longaberger Basket Company headquarters in New Ark, USA
Longaberger Basket Company headquarters in New Ark, USA
Longaberger Basket’s Newark headquarters Longaberger Basket built in 1997 in Ohio, USA is a picnic basket-like 7-story building. It looks quite funny: the windows are arranged in a way that creates an imitation of wicker, and the yellow color of the facades and huge handles on the roof, complete the “basket” image.
24. Museum in Hanoi, Vietnam
Museum in Hanoi, Vietnam
Hanoi Museum: the interior of the room The Hanoi Museum was designed by the German architectural firm GMP. The building’s exterior resembles an inverted pyramid whose base is the roof of this modern complex. Separately worthy of note is the luxurious interior of the museum – painted white walls run along the spiral staircases and a large ramp. The interior design somewhat resembles the interior decoration of the Guggenheim Museum in New York, but from the outside they are two completely different buildings.
25. Aragon Pavilion in Zaragoza, Spain
The Aragon Pavilion in Zaragoza, Spain
Aragon Pavilion in Zaragoza: fragment of the facade Another building resembling a basket made of glass and steel was constructed in Zaragoza, Spain, in 2008. Its construction was timed to coincide with the international exhibition Expo 2008, whose main theme was the lack of water resources on Earth. According to the authors of this original pavilion, “the construction should reflect the deep mark left on the territory of Zaragoza by the five ancient civilizations that once lived in the vicinity of the city. Within the walls of the Aragon Pavilion one can get authentic information about the history of water and how mankind used water resources in former times.
It is known that genius often borders on mediocrity, and the outstanding on the commonplace. The criterion for assessing most architectural structures, as a rule, are the taste preferences of man. As proof of the above thesis our article 10 the ugliest examples of modern architecture, which will certainly find both like-minded and opponents.
From antiquity to modernism: the 8 basic styles of architecture
Architectural style – a set of details and features of the structure that indicate the time of its construction, purpose, historical value, region, and sometimes even the author. Different styles operate with different forms and materials, reflecting changes in fashion, beliefs, mind-holding ideas and technology. Some styles follow each other in chronological order, some develop in parallel over time.
More often than not, the change of dominant styles occurs gradually, as architects perceive the spirit of the times and adapt to new ideas. Together with the experts, we deal with the basic styles in architecture.
Experts in the article:
Ekaterina Svanidze, partner of the DVEKATI architectural studio
Nikolai Faneyev, lead architect, IND architects
1. antique style
Ancient Greek architecture appeared on the Greek mainland, the Peloponnese, the Aegean islands and the colonies in Anatolia and Italy in the period from about 900 B. C. to the 1st century A. D. The earliest preserved structures date from about 600 B. C.
Ancient Greek architecture is especially known for its temples. The second important type of building that survives today is considered an open-air theater. The earliest of them dates from about 525 to 480 B.C. The gates for processions (propiles), market squares (stoa) surrounded by colonnades, city council buildings (boulevteries), tombs (mausoleums) and stadiums are still preserved.
The main features of ancient Greek architecture:
- balance and proportions;
- Characteristic architectural order – definite form, composition and order of vertical (columns, pilasters) and horizontal (entablature) elements;
- use of materials such as marble, brick and concrete;
- stereobranches-the lower part of the temple or colonnade, the “plinth,” usually consisting of 3 steps;
- portico with a pediment.
“The ancient style can include the architecture of Ancient Greece in the 7th to 6th centuries B.C. and the architecture of Ancient Rome. The prevailing typology at that time was temples designed in accordance with principles of symmetry, geometry, harmony of parts and whole, and perspective. The order system (Ionic, Doric and later Corinthian orders) which was later rethought by Romans – Roman Doric, Tuscan, Roman Ionic, Roman Corinthian orders and composite capitals appeared as a distinctive feature of Ancient style (especially in Greek architecture). The best examples of the ancient style include the Parthenon, built in the Acropolis of Athens in the fifth century B.C., and the Flavius Amphitheatre (Roman Colosseum), 72-80 A.D.”
Gothic is a style particularly popular in Europe from the mid-12th to the 16th century, and in some areas survived into the 17th and 18th centuries. The style originated in the Ile-de-France region of northern France, evolving from Romanesque architecture.
One of the main engineering innovations of Gothic architecture was the frame system. It looked openwork and “complex-constructed” (the exact opposite of monumental Romanesque), it changed load distribution in the building, lightened walls and ceilings, made it possible to increase the height of buildings and their area, as well as to save building materials.
Examples of Gothic buildings can be found in Christian church architecture – cathedrals, abbeys and parish churches. Castles, palaces, town halls, universities, and even private residences were also built in this style. Many examples of medieval Gothic architecture are listed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site.
- pointed arches;
- Ribbed vaults (the projecting rib of the vault);
- stained-glass windows;
- buttresses – a vertical projecting part of a wall or a freestanding support connected to it by an architrave;
- arkbutans – stone half-arches connecting a vertical support to the wall;
- pinnacles – pointed spear-shaped towers, most often located at the top of buttresses;
- Verticalization – all parts of the structure tend upwards;
- rich decoration – ornate colonnades, sculpted moldings, statues of saints and historical figures, towers and spires, as well as gargoyles, grotesque figures that can simultaneously be fountains.
“Gothic architecture is mainly represented by religious structures. Of course, the Gothic is associated primarily with the Cathedral of Notre-Dame-de-Paris, the Cathedral of Chartres, the Abbey of Saint-Denis, the Cathedral of Cologne and others. English Gothic stands apart; it adopted the characteristics of the original French style, adapting it to its regional preferences. For example, the English Gothic, unlike the French, which tended as high as possible, emphasized the length of the building rather than its height. Examples include the cathedrals at Lincoln and York, the cathedral at Gloucester, etc.”
The Baroque is a decorative style that appeared in Italy in the early seventeenth century and gradually spread throughout Europe. The style reached its peak in the High Baroque period (1625-1675) when it was used in churches and palaces in Italy, Spain, Portugal, France and Austria. During the Late Baroque period (1675-1750) the style came to Russia as well as to the Spanish and Portuguese colonies in Latin America.
Baroque architects developed the basic elements of Renaissance architecture (which in turn inherited the ancient style), including the characteristic domes and colonnades, to their limits and made them taller, more majestic, and more ornate. Trompe-l’oeil painting (also known as “trickery” – an image rendered so precisely that it could be mistaken for a piece of reality) was often used inside the building, combined with sculpture. Baroque is characterized by excessive decor: numerous angels and painted figures on the ceiling, twisted columns, the abundance of decorative elements occupying the entire space. In Baroque palaces the grand staircases became a central element.
- Repetition of the same decorative techniques in the facade of the building;
- the abundance of details;
- gilded sculpture;
- bright colors;
- fragmented or deliberately incomplete elements;
- the use of a play of light and shadow;
- brightly painted ceilings;
- large-scale murals;
- illusionary effects such as Trompe-l’oeil;
- pear-shaped domes (more typical of the Baroque of Eastern Europe);
- Twisted columns that seem to create the illusion of upward movement.
“Baroque (Portuguese for “irregularly shaped pearl”) is a style of the absolutist era (from 1600 to 1780), when the power of the church was solidarized with the secular. The splendor of the decor, the impressive size of the buildings and the special division of the Baroque rooms reinforced the authority of church and state – the Catholic Church appealed to the faithful through art and architecture. In this style all other arts – sculpture, painting – are subordinated to architecture. Complex architectural forms, usually based on the oval/ellipse, as well as dynamic opposition and interpenetration of spaces, grandeur, drama and contrast of light, opulent forms and rich decorations are the characteristic features of Baroque. The grandiose creations of the Baroque are the Church of Santa Maria della Salute in Venice, the Basilica of Santa Croce in Lecce.”
Classicism has its roots in the temple architecture of ancient Greece and in the religious, military, and civilian architecture of the Roman Empire. The style is characterized by the clarity and simplicity of traditional forms, such as columns, each with fixed proportions and ornaments. It developed in architecture during the Italian Renaissance, with early classicism represented especially clearly in the works and designs of Leon Battista Alberti and Filippo Brunelleschi.
Classicism spread rapidly in Italy and then came to France, Germany, England, Russia, and other countries. In each of them it was interpreted in a different way, acquiring individual features. In the reign of Louis XIV in the background of absolutism appeared “Great Style” – it combined classicism and baroque. In Russia the military and patriotic themes were “superimposed” on the classical buildings in this style.
- symmetry and proportions: the columns and windows are arranged evenly;
- the main entrance is made in the form of a portico and is topped by a pediment;
- sturdy building materials;
- high, floor-to-ceiling windows with fine glazing;
- pilaster order;
- the walls are devoid of decoration.
“At the turn of the 1800s, the old world order is changing – ideas of subjectivism, liberalism, and democracy are developing, the church is losing its former power, and church building ceases to be style-forming. However, to create a new style lacked knowledge and developed taste, so in this century turned to the forms of antiquity. The ideals of beauty of “archaeological classicism” were defined in the work “Thoughts on the imitation of Greek works in painting and sculpture” by Winkelmann. Characteristic features of the style: the segmentation of the building with pilasters and cornices, the facade resembles a Greek or Roman temple with a triangular gable or portico. A couple of examples of classicism in architecture are San Francesco di Paola in Naples and the Cathedral of Our Lady of Kazan in St. Petersburg.
The Rococo style emerged in the 18th century as a reaction against the grandeur and symmetry of classicism. It is a smoother and more detailed style, incorporating ornate, asymmetrical patterns and working with pastel hues.
The style emerged in Paris in response to the heavy-handed architecture of the Baroque and was soon adopted in France, Germany, and Austria. By the end of the 18th century, Rococo dominance had largely been replaced by the neoclassical style.
Although there are many similarities between Baroque and Rococo architecture, one can also find differences. The appearance of Rococo buildings is more playful, lighter and with abundant use of curves. One of the fundamental differences is also that the rococo emphasizes the asymmetry of forms.
The walls, moldings (convex decorative details on the facades) and ceilings of buildings in this style are decorated with numerous intertwined decorative details based on forms “C” and “S”, shells and other naturalistic forms.
Rococo colors are mostly pastel, ivory and gold are actively used, and the decor includes a lot of mirrors – to enhance the feeling of open space. The Azamkirche in Munich, the Palace of Sans-Susi in Potsdam, the Queluz Palace in Sintra, the Charlottenburg Palace in Berlin and the Chapsky Palace in Warsaw were built in the Rococo style.
- rocaille motif – sea shells, unusual curved forms imitating natural elements;
- Absence of strict symmetry;
- rich decorative furnishings;
- pastel colors;
- stucco, carving, and gilding are actively used in the interior;
- relatively small size of buildings;
- the use of cartouches (stucco decorations in the form of a shield or unfolded scroll);
- mirrors are an important element of the interior.
Empire as a movement in architecture, interiors and fine art appeared in France during Napoleon’s reign. This style flourished in the first third of the 19th century in Western Europe and then in Russia.
The style was actively promoted by Napoleon’s court architects Charles Persier and Pierre Fontaine. The décor of the palace interiors in the Empire style was distinguished by contrasting colors: blue, white, bright red, clear lines and an abundance of gilding. The walls were usually covered with brightly colored silk; the ornaments were diamond shapes, circles, military symbols – swords, spears and shields. Egyptian motifs, which came into fashion after the Egyptian campaign of Napoleon, were very popular.
The main structures that belong to this style are considered to be the triumphal arch on the Place Carrousel in Paris, the Vendome Column, the triumphal arch on the Place Charles de Gaulle. Interiors in the Empire style can be seen in the Fontainebleau Palace and the Grand Palais at Versailles.
- Ancient Roman and Egyptian motifs in the ornaments and decorations;
- Abundance of decorative elements;
- cladding with colored stone;
- Loggia instead of a portico;
- gilding in the details.
“The empire style emerged in France during the reign of Bonaparte (1804-1814), who considered himself the greatest emperor since antiquity and used architecture to create a visual connection and connotation between the French Empire and the Roman Empire. The structures of that era-mainly the triumphal arches-used symbols and ornaments borrowed from the ancient world (particularly the Roman Empire) extensively.”
7. Art Nouveau / Art Nouveau / Jugendstil
At the turn of XIX-XX centuries Art Nouveau style literally engulfed the entire European continent, appearing in different ways in each national context: in Germany and Austria it is known as Jugendstil or Secession style, in Belgium and France – art nouveau, in Italy – style liberti or stile floreale (floral style). The main statement of Art Nouveau: art and life are inseparable. Nature becomes the main source of inspiration for the movement, which sought full unity of structure and decor. Art Nouveau is characterized by sinuous lines and organic volumes, often found floral and animalistic motifs. The most striking example of Art Nouveau is the entrances to the metro station in Paris, designed by Hector Guimard.
- natural ornamentation;
- smooth, wavy, curved lines in the decor of facades and interiors;
- pastel, muted shades;
- interior decoration with mosaics, stained-glass windows, enamel;
- building decoration – wood, wrought iron elements of unusual curved forms;
- rectangular doors and windows, quite often – arched.
Art Nouveau is an architectural style based on construction technologies innovative for the last century, in particular the use of glass, steel and reinforced concrete. The main criteria in architecture are functionality, minimalism, rejection of ornament. The style emerged in the first half of the XX century and became dominant after World War II and until the end of the 1980s.
Modernist architecture emerged as a result of breakthroughs in technology, engineering, and building materials, as well as the desire to break away from historical architectural styles and invent something new.
The use of cast iron, plasterboard sheet glass, and reinforced concrete made it possible to build structures that were as strong, light, and tall as ever. Joseph Paxton’s Crystal Palace at the 1851 World’s Fair, an early example of the revolutionary iron and sheet glass construction of its time
In 1884 the first steel-framed skyscraper was built, the ten-story insurance office building in Chicago by architect William Le Baron Jenney. The iron frame of the Eiffel Tower, at the time the tallest structure in the world, captured the imagination of millions of visitors to the 1889 World’s Fair in Paris.
- emphasis on volume;
- the asymmetry of the composition;
- ribbon glazing;
- lack of decor;
- the main materials – reinforced concrete, steel.
“Modernism emerged in the first half of the 20th century and quickly became the leading style and even philosophy of architecture at that time. It was associated with a strictly rational use of materials, constructive innovations, an analytical approach to the functions of buildings. The main tenets were “form follows function” and “less is more.” The pioneers of the movement were Le Corbusier and Walter Gropius, and among the brightest representatives were the German school Bauhaus and Frank Lloyd Wright”.