The Pyramids of Giza – the famous wonder of the world
In the suburbs of Cairo, where the valley of the Nile gently turns into the Libyan desert, on the Giza plateau stand the Great Pyramids of Egypt. They emerge like a mirage from the hot sands of the desert. In ancient times, these amazing structures were among the 7 wonders of the world. Centuries have passed, but the pyramids of Giza impress by their size, and their mysteries still excite the minds of scientists and researchers.
Pyramids of Giza in Egypt
The Egyptian pyramids are the most famous in the world and the tallest. They are the only surviving of the ancient wonders of the world. They have aroused the admiration of great men and mere mortals. The complex of pyramids at Giza, guarded by the Great Sphinx, is part of the vast necropolis of that city.
They were built during the time of the Egyptian pharaohs of the IV dynasty, which ruled in the ancient state in the years 2639-2506 BC. Next to the huge structures are small temples and pyramids where the wives of pharaohs, their officials and priests are buried. These tombs are still being studied by scientists.
Those interested in the history of Egypt can read about the temple of Abu Simbel.
Until now, researchers continue to argue about the purpose of these structures. There is a traditional version, which states that the huge mounds that tower over the mortal world, are the tombs of pharaohs. Their ashes in such graves were closer to the sky and the sun.
Some scholars believe that the Egyptian pyramids were temples where the ministers of the Sun cult performed their religious rites.
Other researchers suggest that they were scientific laboratories set up for astronomical observations.
German archaeologists have put forward another interesting hypothesis. They believe that the pyramids are natural generators of the earth energy. Thanks to it pharaohs were “charged” and rejuvenated. Pharaohs were in the pyramids as regularly as a modern person goes to a psychologist or a masseur.
Most scientists believe that the pyramids of Giza were on Earth before the biblical flood. Therefore, all their secrets will have to solve more than one generation.
Egyptian pyramids: interesting facts
The great Egyptian pyramids were built at different times under several pharaohs, who created tombs and monuments for centuries. The oldest of them is the pyramid of Djoser. Its construction dates back to 2670. It is located in the city of Saqqara. Its height is 62 meters. The name of the author of this pyramid is known – he was the ancient Egyptian architect Imhotep. He was very respected in ancient Egypt, and later in myths he even became the main patron of crafts and arts – son of god Ptah.
The second largest ancient Egyptian pyramid was built by the son of Cheops, Pharaoh Khafra. It is lower than the nearby tomb of Cheops, its height – 136.4 meters, but because it is located at a higher point of the plateau, it competes with the great pyramid. On its summit there is still a white basalt lining, which is very reminiscent of a glacier.The internal structure of the pyramid is quite simple – two chambers, two entrances, located on the north side. One of them is at a height of fifteen meters, and the second is directly under it, at the base of the structure.
The pyramid of Meekerina was erected in 2504 B.C. It is much smaller than the two great pyramids. Its height is 66 meters. Scientists believe that the small size is due to the fact that Meekerin was not the rightful heir to the throne. However, when he did receive power the structure had a more monumental appearance. Unlike the pyramids of Cheops and Chephren, its facing was made of huge blocks of pink granite that were brought to Giza from Aswan along the Nile. Downstream was built the Alexandria Lighthouse. According to the surviving records of contemporaries, despite its more modest size, this structure was considered the most beautiful in Egypt.
The Pyramid of Cheops in Egypt
Much later, similar structures were built in other parts of the country that Egypt is proud of today. Giza, whose pyramids are known all over the world, gained loud fame thanks to one of them – Cheops. It became a true wonder of the world, which can be seen even in our time. The great Egyptian pyramids are rightly considered the three tallest structures – the pyramids of Cheops, Mikerin and Chefren. But do not forget that in this ancient city there are many smaller structures that hold no less mystery than the more monumental.
The pyramid of Cheops at Giza was built a long time ago. It is still unknown exactly how long it took to build it. It is believed that this great pyramid at Giza stands since the time when the country was ruled by Cheops, Pharaoh of the IV dynasty. Huge interest in the history of its construction is not reduced even today. Myths about the pyramid There are a lot of theories about the origin of this grandiose construction. Some of them are based on information obtained from specialists in Egyptology, others have a few exotic, fairy-tale overtones. There is even a version that the structure was built by aliens or some extinct civilization that lived in these places before the pharaohs. And they built it using unknown technical capabilities. According to such theories, the age of this pyramid in Giza significantly exceeds that indicated by modern scientists.
It is quite difficult to accurately measure the parameters of the Cheops pyramid in our time, because it has suffered a lot during its long history. Today, for example, there is no more stone, which crowned the structure, plates of facing are destroyed. According to data obtained with the help of modern measuring instruments, in the beginning the great pyramid in Giza was 146.5 meters high. The length of one side is 232.5 meters. The sides have an inclination of 51 degrees 50 minutes. Weight – 6400000 tons. The internal structure of the famous pyramid at Giza is quite interesting.
All who enter inside this majestic structure can visit four spacious rooms. These are the chambers of the king and queen, a large gallery and an underground chamber. Researchers inside the pyramid discovered four shafts. At first it was suggested that they were necessary for ventilation of the rooms, but later a more daring version emerged, according to which the mines are channels to the stars.
Two of them are directed to the North Star, the third to the star Sirius, and the fourth to Orion. Since ancient times, people sought to climb to the top of the pyramid of Cheops, where there is a small platform measuring ten square meters. There was a belief that there you can touch eternity. Many famous Russians have visited this mysterious place. Among them was the Emperor Nicholas II. And today a lot of tourists come to Giza, who want to see with their own eyes this miracle.
Sphinx – guardian of the pyramids of Giza
The Pyramids of Giza are guarded by the Great Sphinx, the most ancient sculpture that has survived to this day. It is a lion with a human head. The history of the creation of this figure is no less mysterious than the history of the pyramids. There are many versions of the appearance of the Sphinx, but the most common one says that the sculpture was built by Chephren in memory of his father, Pharaoh Cheops.
There is an opinion that the Sphinx was created much earlier and was dug out of the sand during the construction of the great pyramid during the pharaoh’s time. Some discrepancy with the first version is that the face of the Sphinx has Negro features, while all extant images of Cheops do not.
Many legends are associated with the absence of the Sphinx’s nose. The most widespread theory is that the mythical beast lost its nose from Napoleon’s cannons during the battle between the Turks and the French in 1798. But this is a fiction, because there are images from 1737 in which the Sphinx no longer has a nose. Therefore, this sculpture is a great mystery to scientists around the world who study the civilization of ancient Egypt. Many of the findings are preserved in the Cairo Museum. Nowadays, the pyramids at Giza are one of the world’s main attractions, which conceals a great many mysteries and riddles. It is not surprising at all that the Egyptian pyramids are protected by UNESCO. Every year millions of tourists come to Egypt to see them and feel the extraordinary spirit of ancient times.
Pyramids of Giza
The Great Pyramids of Giza is one of the largest pyramid complexes in the world, located in Egypt. It consists of three large pyramids and smaller pyramids where the close associates of the pharaohs rest.
The pyramids of Giza are recognized as a unique architectural monument of antiquity and have the title of one of the ancient wonders of the world. They were built in 2600-2400 BC and are still standing. The pyramids are recognized as the tallest of similar structures in the world. The ancient Egyptians believed that the pyramids symbolized the rays of the sun by which the pharaoh would approach the sun after his death.
The highest pyramid at Giza is that of Cheops (146.6 m), followed by the pyramids of Chephren (136.5 m) and Meekerin (66 m).
The Giza complex is the most visited tourist attraction in Cairo and Egypt and is the subject of controversy among historians about their purpose, features and more.
The Pyramid of Cheops at Giza
This is the most famous of Giza’s pyramids and the tallest. It was originally 146.6 meters high, but over time and under the influence of earthquakes, the upper stones collapsed downward, making it almost 9 meters lower.
According to scientists, the tomb was built by the nephew of Pharaoh Cheops – Chemiun, he was responsible for all construction of that time. The pyramid was built in 2560 BC.
The Cheops pyramid is not only the highest in Giza, but also the most proportionally accurate: the angles of its edges are adjusted to centimeters.
Entrance inside is located at a height of 15 meters. Inside it has four burial chambers, many narrow corridors. There are no hieroglyphs and decorations on its walls.
It took more than 2 million stone blocks to build the pyramid. The biggest blocks weighed several tens of tons. For the construction not to sink into the ground under its own weight, there was chosen a part of plateau with stony ground. The stone blocks were delivered from the quarry, which was far away from the construction. Scientists still cannot explain how, without modern technology, people managed to build such enormous structures.
The purpose of the highest pyramid in ancient Egypt is much disputed. According to most researchers, it is still the tomb of Cheops (the second pharaoh of the IV dynasty) and members of his family. But the debate around the mystery of the pyramid does not cease. For example, from the point of view of some researchers, a kind of observatory was equipped here, because the air shafts and corridors with amazing accuracy point to the stars.
The Pyramid of Cheops is accessible to tourists, you can go down inside it, which makes it the most visited and famous.
Pyramid of Chephren.
The second tallest is the pyramid of Khafr (Chephren). He ruled after Cheops.
The pyramid stands on a plateau above the level of the others by almost 10 meters, which makes it seem larger than the Great Pyramid of Cheops. But it is not.
Inside Chephren’s Pyramid has two burial chambers and passages between them. It is also possible to go down inside.
The pyramid was originally lined with polished stones, but in poor times the Egyptians separated them and used them to build their houses. By the way, all three pyramids of Giza were faced, but only on the Chephren pyramid some of the facing on the uppermost parts remained. It distinguishes it from others externally.
Pyramid of Mikerin.
The smallest pyramid on the plateau belongs to Mikerin (Menkauren). Very little is known about it. Only that Meekerin was the son of Cheops, although this version is also disputed.
It has only one burial chamber carved into its rock base. And, unlike other pyramids, it is best preserved inside and out.
The small size of the pyramid is considered a sign of decay, but its construction still used giant stone blocks, weighing up to 200 tons.
The Giza plateau includes, in addition to the three giant pyramids, several satellite pyramids. They are much smaller in size and volume. According to scientists, the pyramids of this kind were intended for the wives of pharaohs and statesmen.
Next to the Cheops pyramid is the so-called Solar Rook Museum. It contains the extant wooden boat, which the ancient Egyptians considered as the transportation to the netherworld. On it the body of Pharaoh on the Nile was delivered to the tomb. The boat was left at the pyramid so that the ruler continued his journey to the afterlife.
The most famous object of the Giza pyramids is the Great Sphinx. The sphinx is a creature with the head of a man and the torso of a lion. According to some scientists, the head of the Sphinx bears a resemblance to the features of Pharaoh Khafr (Chephren), whose pyramid is located next to the statue.
The Sphinx is a subject of debate among scientists on a par with the pyramids. The exact date of its construction and its purpose are unknown. The main version of historians: the sphinx is designed to protect the valley of Giza. Anyway, the statue blends very harmoniously into the landscape of the area and attracts millions of tourists a year.
Ticket price for the pyramids of Giza in 2022
In order to visit the pyramids of Giza, you need to buy a single ticket. Its cost is 200 EGP for foreign nationals.
The ticket entitles you to travel freely on the Giza plateau and see its sights. However, entrance to the pyramids is charged separately. It is important to remember that inside the pyramids is very dark, hot, and the corridors are very narrow. For those who are afraid of confined spaces, it is better not to risk.
How to get to the pyramids at Giza
The pyramids are located in Giza, a small city and according to some reports a peripheral area of Cairo, about 30 km from its center. The high tourist demand has made visiting the pyramids possible in several ways.
The most convenient option for tourists is to book an organized tour in one of the many travel agencies or hotels of residence. The tour includes transfers and services of a guide, as well as entrance tickets. It will cost from $30-40.
But there is an opportunity to get to the pyramids of Giza and on your own, without depending on time and group. For example, by intercity bus M7 from Cairo. It departs from the Abdel Munim Riad Square stop every 30-40 minutes throughout the day. The bus arrives at Giza in about 20-30 minutes. The stop closest to the pyramids is called Mena House. From there to the ticket office and the entrance is about 10 minutes on foot.
You can also take the subway to Giza’s pyramids. The nearest station is called Giza (line 2, orange). From there you need to order a cab or take a bus.
You can also get to the pyramids at Giza by car and there is a nearby parking lot, or use mobile cab applications: Uber, KiwiTaxi or local carriers – cabs or tuk-tuks. In this case, the trip around the city will be cheaper.