All about Germany – what a tourist can do and a bit of history
For tourism or for business, Germany is perfect! Let’s try to tell you all about its modern history , where to go, what to see, what sights ️ there are in Germany, German food, culture, holidays and more
Today we will talk about one of the most developed countries in central Europe and the world as a whole – Germany . Well TAM has prepared detailed information concerning its location, climate, features of economic development and much more. Let’s start without long introductions!
History of the formation of the state of Germany
From time immemorial, the territory of modern Germany was inhabited only by barbarians. Many times the Romans tried to conquer them, but succeeded very rarely. In the face of the enemy, the local tribes created alliances and together repelled the raids of foreigners. After a while, the Roman Empire disappeared from the face of the earth, and the lands of the barbarians went to Charlemagne. After his death, however, the state split again.
At the dawn of the 2nd millennium, the local ruler united the tribes and called them the Holy Roman Empire
The Teutonic Order and the Order of the Swordsmen, which attacked the principality of Lithuania, emerged on German territory at one time. In the 16th century the power experienced another disintegration. In this state it existed until 1862, when Otto von Bismarck was appointed minister-chairman of Prussia. In the 20th century, the country organized two world wars. It lost both, resulting in its fragmentation into the GDR and the FRG. Only after the collapse of the Soviet Union did the country unite again. It exists in this territorial framework to this day.
General information about the country
The Federal Republic of Germany is located in central Europe. The country shares its borders with 10 countries, including: Denmark to the north; the Czech Republic and Poland to the east; Belgium, the Netherlands, France and Luxembourg to the west. But there are no neighbors to the north. There are only the Baltic Sea and the North Sea. They have a couple of islands, which also belong to Germany. In general, the geographical position can be characterized as very good.
The country is located very conveniently, in the central part of Europe. A temperate climate belt gives an excellent climate without anomalies and natural disasters. Winters are warm and summers are not very hot. Perfect.
The estimated population is 82,175,684, which is the second highest in Europe and sixteenth highest in the world. Given the small size of the country (357,408.74 km²), the fact that the country ranks 36th in the world in terms of population density is not at all surprising.
Form of government
By its system of government, Germany is a federal state with 16 federal states. The head of state since 2005 is one of the few women politicians Federal Chancellor Angela Merkel.
The majority of the population (65%) is Christian. Catholicism, Christianity and Protestantism are also practiced in the country. But these religions are not as widespread and have a local character.
Until 1999, the currency in the country was the German mark. But after the country joined the Eurozone, it was decided to switch to the euro. For another 3 years, the mark existed as a currency subordinate to the euro. And only in 2002, they were completely out of use. And the euro exchange rate to date against the ruble is about 1 to 70.
Country telephone code
Emergency telephone numbers
If you are planning to visit Germany, you won’t be at a loss for choice. This is a modern, developed country with a rich culture and excellent police forces. So tourists can only be afraid of hamsters and petty pickpockets. By the way, the destruction of the first are punishable by law. The second is better to avoid.
But just in case every tourist before the trip is better to learn a few numbers:
- Police – 110;
- Ambulance and firefighters – 112;
- Information service in Russian (inside the country): (0190) 87-22-50.
Also in large cities you can easily find a telephone kiosk with a telephone directory, so that you won’t have any problems with understanding.
Features of life of the Germans
It is worth admitting that life in this developed country is very expensive. In Russian money. But the fact that the salaries there are an order of magnitude higher than in our country. But if we talk in general, the prices of products here are about the same as in Russia. But the prices for services are several times higher than in Russia. For example, it costs 10 to 50 euros to get a haircut. And a ride on public transport costs 2.5 euros. This is incomparable with our 20 rubles.
Probably because of such prices Germans are not such open and good-natured people as, for example, Czechs or Poles. The most appropriate word to describe a typical German is reserved. They are discreetly friendly, discreetly helpful. German will not tell you the story of his family up to the 7th degree in detail. But he will explain in detail and clearly explain how to get to this or that place if you are lost. Another word that suits Germans is pragmatism. It gives the impression that these people do not spend a second of his life for recreation or celebrations (of course, this is wrong, the Germans know how to rest more than the Russians). It’s not likely that you’ll find a single piece of dirt or a cigarette butt on the ground walking the quiet streets of Dresden. It is very clean, you could say sterile. And this is no joke.
You can easily get a fine of 50 euros for throwing out a cigarette butt.
Germans are very fond of ordnung (order). This pedantry has helped Germans grow into a highly developed country, which nevertheless does not forget its roots. Every major city has a historical center, which holds a piece of the past. To visit them is the same as going back in time.
Best climate for tourists
Germany is a country open to tourism. It can vacation all year round, the choice of season depends more on the type of holidays and preferences. Most tourists come here between May and September. Prices at this time skyrocket, the streets are jammed, and tourists abound. But summer Germany is worth seeing: most days are sunny, people relax in the open air, towns and villages come alive in the evening through festivals and celebrations. The atmosphere is indescribable and well worth paying for it. The weather is often very warm with the thermometer rarely falling below 20 degrees Celsius. It is ideal for hiking or biking.
If you like winter sports and outdoor activities, the best time to go is after the New Year.
At this time, the ski resorts are in full swing. They continue to operate actively until March, when the snow begins to melt. However, take into account that the daylight hours are 6-8 hours, but the average temperature is very comfortable – just below zero. In the intervening seasons, spring or fall, the country has a rest from the tourists. No, they do not disappear altogether, just a little less.
Berlin – the heart of Germany
The largest city of the country, its capital is Berlin. In terms of population of the cities of the European Union is second only to London. It is a modern and constantly evolving metropolis, which is the cultural and economic center of the European Union.
After World War II the city was divided into western and eastern parts by the wall. Its length was about 160 km. But in 1989 it was destroyed and the city was reunited again.
In addition to Berlin in the country can be identified with a dozen large cities, which is surprising for a medium-sized country. Among them:
- Hamburg – 1.8 million people.
- Munich – 1.45 million people.
- Cologne – 1 million people.
- Frankfurt am Main – 730 thousand people.
- Stuttgart – 620 thousand people.
- Dusseldorf – 610 thousand people.
- Dortmund – 585 thousand people
- Essen – 580 thousand people.
- Leipzig – 560 thousand people.
- Bremen – 557 thousand people.
Where to go on vacation first
In Germany, every city is unique and keeps a piece of history. But people can not go broke, and everyone has a different budget for travel. Well TAM picked up for you 5 cities in the country, where you need to go first.
Undoubtedly, the capital should be visited first. This city, which keeps the history of the country, is visited by hundreds of thousands of tourists every year. History is hidden not only in its many museums and churches, but also in the architecture of the city. Some parts of Berlin seem to have been plucked straight out of a fairytale world of Harry Potter or Alice in Wonderland. It depends on your imagination.
The second most important city in Germany. It is more for those who like calm and quiet rest. It is better to begin the acquaintance with the historical part of town, which is simply amazing. Basilica of St. Mary’s Cathedral and the Church of St. Peter are the landmarks of the city. Fans of automobiles and all things four-wheeled should visit the BMW Museum. If you visit Munich in the fall, check out the annual Oktoberfest beer festival. The atmosphere and beer there is top-notch.
The magnificent Frankfurt am Main seems to be known by everyone, right down to the indigenous tribes of South Africa. The city surprisingly manages to combine modernist malls with their fast-paced lifestyle and quiet neighborhoods in the historic center with classic fairy-tale architecture. Many tourists come here for this contrast.
It was founded in 786 by Charlemagne. Since then, many buildings have survived that are worth seeing with your own eyes. The city can be visited if only to look at the monument famous all over the world in the story of the Town Musicians of Bremen.
The city is located in Lower Saxony. It is known for the fact that it constantly hosts large trade fairs. Modernity and history are very harmoniously intertwined in the architecture of this city, allowing you to observe several styles of architecture at once.
The most popular kinds of recreation
In addition to conventional tourism, in Germany you can relax in other ways. Among them are the following:
The island of Rügen delights with its long clean beaches and beautiful nature. You can also sunbathe on Binz. And if you want to be in touch with nature, you can visit the beach on the island of Sylt, away from the hustle and bustle of the world. Also for tourists all year round there is a complex called Dunan Terme.
Ski resort in Germany is very developed and popular. Among all the resorts are several.On the Zuppipe mountain is located ski resort Garmisch-Partenkirchen .
Garmisch-Partenkirchen, the only one in the whole country, was included in the popular top of the Alpine resorts “Best of the Alps”.
A busy life in this resort does not let you get bored for a minute. The second most popular resort is called Berchtesgaden. It consists of 6 small complexes, also located in the Alps. Suitable more for aesthetes, because the landscapes here are such that they moved to the Alps from the fairy tale world. Coming here, you can admire the mass of mountain waterfalls. The cherry on the cake is a beautiful view of the Konigsee Lake. And the Alps themselves create the right flavor! Worthy of attention and the ski resort Obersdorf. When you come here to rest, you can absolutely accidentally get to the world championship, and in the pub to meet an idol athlete. The length of all the slopes is more than 44 kilometers. There is also a large entertainment center, where you can find a large number of restaurants, spas and clubs.
The Germans are fun-loving, helpful and friendly people. Therefore, for many tourists visiting local festivals is one of the favorite kinds of tourism. Festivals in Germany are held for all tastes and colors: music, movies, carnivals, etc. Despite conventional wisdom, Germans love and know how to have fun. The largest film festival in Europe is Berlinale . And the Germans celebrate the arrival of spring with a festival of fireworks called “Rhine in flames. And, of course, it is impossible not to mention the autumn beer festival “Oktoberfest”. where every Russian person dreams to go.
And if the beaches, similar to German, can be found, for example, in Italy in Sicily, and go skiing on the slopes of Switzerland, the festivals – a truly German entertainment, which has no analogues in the world.
Where better to stay a tourist
The question is quite complicated. It depends more on the travel budget and comfort needs. If in your past life you were a Spartan, in the summer you can generally sleep on the ground, putting your fist under your head. But seriously, in the summer period for tourists traveling by car and the truth is very common to rest in campsites with tents. It is not so comfortable, but it is free.
Those who are not accustomed to live in tents can rent a hotel with 2 or 3 stars. Spa salon, of course, will not be, but a cozy and comfortable room – quite. Prices vary greatly, it all depends on the location relative to the city center. But on average for such a room will have to lay out about 20-50 euros per week.
A more budget option – rent a hostel . It will cost about 20-25 euros per week. If you are traveling as a family or a small group, you can try to rent an apartment. For it will have to pay 100-300 euros.
Traditional German cuisine
German cuisine combines the traditions of many regions of the country, so the traditional menu is quite diverse. But you should definitely try:
There are 1,500 thousand species of them in the country. In such a pile every gourmand will find something to his liking. Smoked and liveried varieties are especially popular.
Also very popular and in demand. The traditional varieties are made of pork, there are exceptions. Hamburg sausages, for example, are made from veal and fish. And “bokwurst” (Berlin smoked-cooked sausages) are made from beef with added spices.
The Germans call it “Sauerkraut.” It is usually served as a side dish to meat or fish.
This is a rolled dough with a filling, a kind of roll. Cherries or apples are usually used as the filling.
A traditional German sweet. It is made of almonds and powdered sugar. The almonds are ground into a powder and mixed with powdered sugar or sometimes syrup. The result is a thick mass with a pleasant taste.
All this stuff costs a pretty penny. You can get it only in restaurants or cafes and the average bill for dinner there is 10-15 euros (700-1000 р!). And if you eat at high-level restaurants the price can be as high as 30-60 euros.
In general, food in Germany is an expensive pleasure, if you compare it to Russian prices. The “hardened” recommend to eat in cafe on the outskirts (6-7 euros for lunch).
And students give preference to fast food cafes, where for 4.5-5 euros you can have a quick and nourishing snack.
How to get to Germany
To get to Germany for a Russian tourist is not so easy. You need to issue a bunch of papers for permission, and the main among them is a visa. Without a visa to visit the country is not possible. Tourists need to apply for the usual tourist visa. If you wish to earn extra money, you’ll need a work visa. For the study you need an education visa, and so on.
There are two types of visas that will allow you to visit the country – the Schengen visa and the national visa category D.
The advantage of the first is that it can travel throughout Europe, and the second allows you to visit only Germany itself. Of course, it is better to get a Schengen visa, but sometimes it is denied. Then the alternative airfield is visa D. It is easier to obtain than the Schengen visa. The cost of the Schengen visa is the same and is 35 euros, the D visa is 60 euros.
Once you have obtained a visa, it’s time to go. You can get to Germany by plane, train or even bus. Of course, the plane is the fastest way (2-3 hours flight). The cost of tickets from Moscow for the cheapest flights starts from 8 thousand rubles. Those who are afraid of flying, should pay attention to the trains and buses, which take 25 hours to get you to Berlin in one piece. But the cost is very different – the cost of a standard train ticket starts at 300 euros (20 thousand rubles), and for the bus have to pay about 3 times less. Still, the plane is the best way to travel, both in terms of price and time.
Pros and cons of traveling to Germany
Among the pros are the following facts:
- Choosing Germany for the trip, you get the highest level of service, which includes: quality service in the hotel or resort; comfortable apartments for the rest; delicious and healthy food.
- The most fastidious tourist will find something to see in this country. After all, it is very carefully treated to the history.
- Festivals and celebrations create an unforgettable and magical atmosphere. It is she is very memorable.
- Beer! If you are in Germany, you will taste the real German beer, brewed by ancient technology. And believe me, with Russian varieties, it has little in common.
But there are also disadvantages:
- Prices . First of all they are. Prices for food, accommodation and travel hit the Russian tourist pretty hard. It’s all about the difference between Russian and German standards of living.
- Tourists . Yes, yes, you heard right. Germany is so attractive that it is literally flooded with tourists all year round. There’s nothing worse than seeing a cathedral or a painted house in an eerie crush.
- For some, the downside may be the mentality of the Germans. In a nutshell, it can be described as official and benevolent. For the open-minded Russian person it can be unusual and even unpleasant.
A good vacation should take place abroad. If you want to visit Europe, then Germany is the most suitable candidate for this. Here you do not get bored. So have a nice vacation and easy way!
The perfect country for tourists – Germany
Germany is ideal for tourists with its history and sights. Once you visited it and saw Brandenburg Gate, Port of Hamburg, you will want to come back and refresh your memories with a return trip to the country.
Ideal country for tourists – Germany
A symbol of German history, a beautiful landmark is the Brandenburg Gate. 220 years have passed since it was opened, which is a solid date for a monument. Important actions for history have taken place at the gate. For decades, it served as a reminder of the division of the country into several parts. Now it serves as a symbol of a united nation.
The construction of the gate was started in the 18th century by a great German architect. This master became the founder of classicism in Germany. The masterpiece was based on the works of the builders of antiquity.
At the sculptor’s prompting for the opening, the gate had a snow-white appearance, this gave more elegance. Victoria, the goddess of victory, was seated in a carriage with four horses. The monument crowned the arch at a height of six meters. The fate of the sculpture is tragic; the arch was also destroyed.
The Brandenburg Gate is an arch of 26 meters in height, built on pillars eleven meters wide. The gate is sixty-five meters long. The monument was built of blocks, later covered with sandstone.
There are five passages between the gates, the middle one being the widest for government events and great men. The side passages were made for ordinary citizens. On the sides are statues of the gods. The slabs are decorated with engravings.
Near the monument there is a small building for the guard, a hall of silence is provided and every tourist can reflect on the fate of the many victims of the monument.
The gate is an elegant and great treasure of the country’s architecture. Germans are overwhelmed with pride in their relic, tourists are thrilled by the beauty and grace of the national treasure.
After World War II most of the monuments were badly damaged and many of them were destroyed for good. Thus the square in front of the gate became an arena for the battle between Germany and the Soviet Union. Tired of fighting, the soldiers tried to destroy and destroy the city’s architecture, from where the tyrant’s orders were given.
The columns had a deplorable appearance after the war. Shells and bullets left marks on the arches and slabs, cracks, chips, and holes appeared.
When Germany united, the gate became a symbol of the unity of the nation. For two years, repairs were made to restore the national shrine.
The Brandenburg Gate is an elegant masterpiece that was able to withstand the hard times for the country. After sunset, you can see how the gate shines with different colors, thanks to the elaborate illumination. One gets the impression that everything tends toward the sky and that everything is in motion at dusk.
Port of Hamburg
Port of Hamburg is Europe’s third-largest port and has played a huge role in the city’s development.
Port of Hamburg
It is very far from the sea, but built in such a way that it can take ships of all sizes . The port is a cultural and business center. There are more than three hundred berths. It is interesting and informative to visit the exhibitions and museums. Very entertaining will be a walk along the harbor, where you can see the ships-museums. Can see the balloon.
Port of Hamburg
If sightseeing tiresome, you can walk on the terrace, the square Vasco da Gama .
Visiting the port is an unforgettable experience.
The small lake at an altitude of one thousand eight hundred meters is the most beautiful. It takes one’s breath away and keeps them in everyone’s memory. It is possible to enjoy the nature of the area. Journey to Shrek is possible both on foot and by car.
Germany is rich in beautiful locations that every tourist should visit to gain new knowledge and impressions.