The Tower of Pisa
Leaning tower of Pisa is one of the most famous and popular attractions in Italy. Moreover, it is one of the most recognizable symbols of the country, its calling card. The Tower of Pisa is located in the city of Pisa in Tuscany, just 10 km away from the warm and gentle Ligurian Sea. The tower is a bell tower and is part of the architectural ensemble of the local Cathedral of the Assumption of the Blessed Virgin Mary or Santa Maria Assunta (Duomo Santa Maria Assunta).
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Video: Leaning Tower of Pisa
The Tower of Pisa has become a noun for unstable or falling structures
How could a seemingly typical bell tower at the temple of the most ordinary city become world famous? It’s because of its slant, which creates the illusion of falling. And although it is not intentional and is in no way a consequence of unprofessionalism of builders, the visual effect is impressive – for centuries!
Meanwhile, the name of the building has undeservedly become a synonym for unfortunate construction. The architects and builders of that time had indeed made a serious miscalculation, having begun to build the Tower of Pisa on an area with excessively soft ground. But this had no effect on the historical and cultural value of the landmark: the Tower of Pisa is still standing out today among the many oldest and most beautiful monuments in the Apennines.
In general, there are about three hundred “falling” buildings in the world. But the unique beauty of the airy, openwork arcades, the famous bell tower and the rich history of the Tower of Pisa make it a priceless architectural treasure, setting it apart from the rest. And so it is well deserved that in 1986 it, together with the cathedral, the adjacent square and the baptistery, was included in the list of UNESCO World Heritage Sites.
Corinthian Order Columns Pisa Cathedral and Tower
History of the Tower of Pisa
Construction of the Leaning Tower of Pisa lasted almost 200 years with long interruptions. It began during the heyday of the Republic of Pisa as a maritime state (incidentally, the first Italian maritime power). The construction of the architectural ensemble was planned at a distance from the city center.
Stages of the construction of the Tower of Pisa
The first stage of construction of the Tower of Pisa was led by Guglielmo Innsbruck and Bonnano Pisano. On August 9, 1173 work began. At first, the date was different, 1174, until the researchers realized that it was corrected: the Republic had its own calendar, which was a full year ahead of the accepted one.
The observation deck of the Leaning Tower of Pisa
The foundations were first laid three meters deep. Then, as usual, they waited for a year. It was then, after the first floor and two tiers of colonnades had been built, that the leaning of the Leaning Tower of Pisa became noticeable. Work was halted. In 1198 the soil was strengthened and the building was opened. The interesting fact remains that the tower tilted in different directions during construction: first to the north, then to the south.
The next stage began 35 years later, at the end of 1233. Benenato, son of Gerardo Botici, took over the management of such a complex object. About this time half of the Tower of Pisa had been built.
In front of the Tower of Pisa is the sculpture "Fountain of Cupids"
Great progress in the work was made when Giovanni di Simone became involved in the construction. At the end of 1264, stone mining for the tower began in the mountains near Pisa. The material was processed by master Reynaldo Speshale.
View of the Tower of Pisa from below upwards
Since 1272 Giovanni di Simone supervised the construction of the Tower of Pisa. He decided to try to compensate for the slope by raising the ceiling on one side by 10 centimetres. But his hopes did not materialize: this only increased the curvature. In 1275 the 5th floor was completed. The deviation from the central axis exceeded 50 centimeters.
In 1284, the Republic of Pisa suffered a crushing defeat at the Battle of the Island of Meloria for domination of the Mediterranean Sea. A period of decline began and construction was halted again.
Steps in the Tower of Pisa
The next references to the erection of the Tower of Pisa are dated to 1319. A bell was raised to the sixth tier and placed in the opening of the arch. The final stage of construction was supervised by Tomasso. He was the son of Andrea Pisano, the famous Italian architect, architect and goldsmith. In 1350 the construction of the bell tower began. Finally, in 1372, the grandiose construction was completed. By the time the work was completed, the deviation from the central axis was 1.43 meters.
The Leaning Tower of Pisa turned out to be quite different from what was originally planned. Instead of a 10-storey building, 98 meters high with a roof over the bell tower, only 8 storeys were built. Today the building is 55.86 meters on the south side and 56.7 meters on the north side.
The main question associated with the construction of the Tower of Pisa has always been, “Why is it falling?” There have been many theories about it. There was even a daring assumption that it was designed that way. The most probable reason for the slope is considered to be an insufficiently deep foundation in conditions of heterogeneous clay soil, prone to subsidence.
The Tower of Pisa in detail
Although the Tower of Pisa itself is tilted, the bell tower, built in the second half of the 14th century on top of the tower, stands flatter
The outer and inner diameter of the base of the Tower of Pisa are 18.484 m and 10.368 m respectively. The weight of the tilted Italian beauty is 14700 tons. It has 294 steps. The thickness of the walls at the base is also impressive – 4.05 meters on average, which decreases to the top (at the base it is 4.9 m, and at the height of the galleries it is already 2.48 m). The current inclination of the tower is estimated by experts at 3° 54′.
The Tower of Pisa at sunset.
The features of Romanesque, Byzantine and Arabian cultures are discernible in the appearance of the grandiose construction. To some scholars the Tower of Pisa resembles a mosque or minaret. It is noteworthy that the bell tower is at a distance from the cathedral, which is not characteristic of Christian churches. It suggests that the bell tower might have been influenced by a Muslim architectural tradition. Or vice versa: the idea of a freestanding bell tower first appeared in Christian church architecture, and the younger Islam took it over. Many scholars and religious scholars are still arguing about this, and no common denominator has been reached.
The lunette of the Tower of Pisa
The Tower of Pisa is made of stone, richly decorated with light gray and white marble. The first floor is monolithic, with blind arches, which are formed by 15 columns with caissons. Rosettes, with which they are decorated, repeat the decor of the cathedral and the baptistery. There are six further storeys. The external wall of each storey is an open gallery decorated with a fanciful pattern and ornament. The thirty columns of each tier have classical capitals and are supported by enclosed arches. These graceful arcades are repeated in the cathedral building, uniting the whole ensemble. The decorative ornamentation embodies the features of Byzantine architecture.
Above the sixth tier of arcades there is a bell tower. The bell tower is less deflected from the central axis and stands flat. This gives the appearance of the building a banana shape. At the entrance to the Tower of Pisa one can see amazing bas-reliefs. At the top, in the space between the arches, is a sculpture of the Madonna and Child by Andrea Gardi. The inner cylinder of the tower is made of brick. The space between the walls is hollow. It is visible from the tower through observation windows. The building has three spiral staircases.
Spiral staircase from tier 7 to 8
Inside the Tower of Pisa is a huge open hall decorated with bas-reliefs depicting fantastic animals. Around the circumference of the wall a spiral staircase leads to the upper tier. They are wide at the foot, but only about 40 centimetres wide at the top. The stairs are made of marble, and are worn in some places. The stairs lead to the observation deck of the tower.
Tourists are happy to visit the Hall of Fishes. It is so called because of the images of marine animals. Previously this room was closed to guided tours. Here were the instruments that tracked the angle of the Leaning Tower of Pisa. In the ceiling of the room through the hole at night you can see the stars. An unforgettable experience, as if you were in a real observatory.
The Hall in the Tower of Pisa View of the Hall from above
The bell tower
The bell tower is rightly considered the most beautiful in Italy, and it appeared in the Leaning Tower of Pisa only in the second half of the 14th century. Each of the seven bells is set to a different note and has its own history. The first, the oldest, is called Pasquarreccia, made in the mid-13th century. It is tuned to G-flat. The Tertz bell is responsible for the B-sharp note and appeared in the belfry in 1473. The bell of Vespruccio was cast in 1501 (note E). Vincenzo Posenti made the Crocifisso bell (C-sharp), which was remelted by the master Gualandi da Prato in 1818.
Bell Tower of Pisa View of the Cathedral of Santa Maria Assunta from the Tower of Pisa
During the Second World War the bell of Dal Pozzo was destroyed. After the restoration it was placed in a museum. On the bell tower since 2004 is its exact replica. The largest bell, Assunta (the name translates as “ascension”), is in the B note. It weighs 3.5 tons and was made by Giovanni Pietro Orlandi. In 1735 the bell was melted down.
Pisans and visitors to the city can enjoy the church’s chime at noon sharp. It is impossible to describe its beauty and melody – you should definitely hear it for yourself!
A sunny day in Pisa
Almost from the beginning of construction efforts were made to straighten the Tower of Pisa. The first commission was established in 1298. Over the centuries, people have tried to save this architectural marvel. To preserve the unique construction unprecedented measures are being taken in our time as well. Only by 2008 was it possible to stop the “fall” of the tower.
The Tower of Pisa is more than 650 years old since its completion, making it one of the oldest buildings not only in the city, but also in the country as a whole. Without restoration work, the Tower of Pisa would hardly have been saved, a view that almost all architects and historians agree on. Measures to maintain the object in its original form were carried out in different eras and, accordingly, differed in complexity: from the replacement of the crumbling columns outside the building to the melting of the bells. And to keep the Tower of Pisa from collapsing, to preserve it, truly titanic efforts were made. In 1934 liquid cement was introduced into the foundation.
The entrance to the Leaning Tower of Pisa
The Pisa authorities even announced a competition for the best option for “leveling” the building. There were many suggestions. Some were quite original. For example, to erect a monument to the “hapless” architect Bonnano Pisano to prop up his brainchild. Or to erect a symmetrical tower next to it, but with an opposite slope. The jokes, however, were taken seriously and an experimental model was built nearby.
Piazza dei Miracoli
In 1989, in the Italian town of Pavia (Lombardy Region) the bell tower of the cathedral collapsed. This caused concern: what if something similar would happen to the Tower of Pisa? It was decided in advance to take care of its preservation through another restoration. So, at the beginning of the 90s the site was closed to visitors. In 1992, 18 steel rings encircled the first arcade gallery. Lead counterweights with a total weight of 600 tons were placed on the north side of the Leaning Tower of Pisa. Safety supports were placed on the sloping side. First, the technique was tested on a mock-up, and only then did the unique work begin. The casing pipe system was used to literally drill bit by bit to remove soil from under the northern part of the structure. The goal was to achieve subsidence of the tower from this side and to level the structure.
At the top of the Leaning Tower of Pisa Bell
The Italian authorities allocated $27 million to save the legendary structure, and the enormous expense was rewarded. The angle of inclination was reduced by one and a half degrees. In 2001, the Tower of Pisa was reopened to tourists. Today the difference between the two sides of the foundation is about two meters. According to the optimistic predictions of the scientists the Tower of Pisa is expected to stand for at least another 300 years. As it has been announced, since 2008 there has been no greater deviation of the Leaning Tower of Pisa from its central axis, thanks to the efforts made so far. Prior to that every year the inclination increased by a millimeter.
To summarize the above, one thing can be noted: despite its “shaky position”, the Tower of Pisa has proved to be more stable than many “level” buildings, and not only in Italy. During its existence, it has survived several major earthquakes, but has survived and continues to delight not only travelers, but also local residents with its view – original and unique.
Myths, interesting facts
The famous astronomer Galileo Galilei, a native of Pisa, is said to have conducted his equally famous experiments on the tower. The scientist wanted to prove that all bodies, regardless of their mass, fall down with the same velocity. To do this, he dropped various objects from the Tower of Pisa and measured the time of the fall. Galileo, according to the claims of his student Vincenzo Viviani, also studied the amplitude of the oscillation of the pendulum from the walls of the tower. Unfortunately, these facts remain unconfirmed, although there is no reason to doubt their veracity or plausibility.
Standing in the Tower of Pisa you can see the starry sky
Donna Berta di Bernardo’s contribution to the Tower of Pisa, on the other hand, is proven. The woman bequeathed sixty soledos for its erection. This money was spent on the purchase of stones, which are still at the base of the bell tower today. In this way, the woman immortalized her name for posterity. She also sowed doubt about the actual people involved in the construction: in her message, she mentioned a certain Master Gerardo. It is also known that Diotisalvi was a builder in Pisa at the time, and it seems more likely that he was involved in the construction of the Leaning Tower of Pisa. But his work was usually signed by him, and if he was not left out of such a grandiose construction project, why is his autograph missing from the bell tower?
According to legend, the Tower of Pisa wanted to follow the architect.
An amusing legend explains the inclination of the Tower of Pisa. Allegedly the structure was originally perfectly straight. But the authorities did not want to settle accounts with the architect in full. He turned to his brainchild, “Come with me!” In front of an astonished public, the Tower of Pisa tilted. But, as we can see, it didn’t move. And, of course, it couldn’t have: it’s just a beautiful story, which, however, has a deeper meaning. It is possible, some historians suppose, that the architect was really underpaid…
The tower in Niles, USA
In the American city of Niles, in the state of Illinois (Chicago suburb), there is a counterpart of the Bizarre Pisa Water Tower, exactly copying the original, including the slope. True, its dimensions are half its size. And in the documentary film “Life after people”, also an American film, tells about the destruction of the Leaning Tower of Pisa, which, according to the authors, will happen only after 250 years.
The Aldehove Tower deviates from its axis more than the Leaning Tower of Pisa
The famous Italian beauty has world analogues. In the Netherlands, for example, this is the unfinished Oldehove Bell Tower, located in the historic center of Leuwarden, the capital of the province of Friesland. If we compare the two sites, it would not be in favor of the Tower of Pisa. In the sense that the Aldehove deviates even more from its central axis.
Two other “falling” towers are located in Russia, they are also often compared with the Leaning Tower of Pisa. The first is Suyumbike in the Kazan Kremlin (it was an observation building, first mentioned in 1777). It deviates noticeably to the northeast, and the slope of its spire is 1.98 m. The second one is Nevyanskaya tower, located in the center of Nevyansk of Sverdlovsk region (built in 1721-1745 by order of Russian businessman Akinfy Demidov). It deviates from the vertical by about 1.85 meters.
Suyumbike Tower Nevyansk Tower
But back to the Tower of Pisa. Our “evasive” heroine has also made her way into animated movies. It is mentioned in the popular Japanese animated series “The Round-the-World Voyage of the Cat in Boots,” made in 1969 by director Katsumata Tomohara. The Leaning Tower of Pisa was also featured in such contemporary U.S.-produced cartoons as Phineas and Ferb (2007) and The Adventures of Mr. Peabody and Sherman (2014), where it is also mentioned.
How to get there, hours of operation
The Tower of Pisa is part of an architectural complex that is located in the Piazza dei Miracoli, a very large, walled area whose name translates as “field of wonders.” In addition to the “falling” tower, it includes the cathedral of Santa Maria Assunta (Cathedral of Our Lady of the Ascension), the baptistery of San Giovanni and the monumental cemetery of Campo Santo.
The city can be reached from Genoa by train in two hours. The fare is about 20 euros. From Florence every half hour there is an electric train. The ticket price is about 8 euros, in one hour you can go to Pisa.
It is longer to go from Rome: by train the journey will take about three hours, the ticket will cost about 23 euros. The high-speed train will arrive one hour earlier, but the ticket costs 14 euros more. If you plan to stay in the city, a night in a hotel will cost 60-100 euros.
From the train station in Pisa you can get to the architectural complex on foot. The walk will take about half an hour. By public transport you can get to the Tower of Pisa much faster, you should get off at the stop Piza Rossore.
There is always a lot of people willing to support the Leaning Tower of Pisa.
It is better to take care of tickets in advance, especially during the summer. The cost of visiting the Leaning Tower of Pisa is 18 euros. Quite expensive, but the municipal government in this way is trying to compensate for the huge costs of restoration work.
In the ticket office building there is a toilet for visitors. In the nearby building in the storage rooms you can leave your belongings. The tower can accommodate a maximum of 40 visitors at a time. Exit to the external viewing platforms begins with the fifth tier. There are fences and nets installed for safety. If you can climb 294 stairs, the upper observation deck will offer beautiful views of the city, and below, as on the palm of your hand, will be the cathedral in the form of a cross.
Imagination is almost limitless!
Near the Leaning Tower of Pisa there are always a lot of tourists who take bright, memorable, sometimes funny photos against the background of the famous landmark. Someone “supports” the building, someone tries to climb it. The unique architectural structure gives a huge scope for imagination.
The Tower of Pisa is open to visitors in the summertime (April-September) from 8:30 to 20:30, in the wintertime (October-March) from 9 to 17 hours.
From June 14 to September 15, there are night visits. You can admire the spectacular views of the city during sunset, and dazzling lighted night Pisa.
The Tower of Pisa
The Tower of Pisa is one of the most famous landmarks of Italy. The eight-story structure owes its popularity primarily to the deviation from the vertical axis visible to the naked eye, as well as to its unique architectural appearance. Every year thousands of tourists come to see the “falling” tower, climb to the observation deck, which offers stunning views of the city and the surrounding countryside, as well as take pictures against the background of the landmark.
The bell tower, or campanile, is part of an architectural and religious ensemble together with the Cathedral of Pisa – Duomo di Santa Maria Assunta, the Baptistery of San Giovanni and the monumental cemetery of Campo Santo. In 1987 the complex was included in the list of UNESCO World Heritage Sites.
Where is the Tower of Pisa
The landmark, which has become one of the symbols of Italy, is located in Piazza dei Miracoli (aka Piazza del Duomo), within the fortress walls of the historic center of Pisa. The city, in turn, is located in northeastern Tuscany, famous for its spectacular scenery, which belongs to the central regions of the country.
Unlike the traditional bell towers of Catholic churches, the Campanile is not adjacent to the Duomo, but is a separate structure.
Every tourist and traveler coming to Pisa seeks first of all to visit Piazza della Miracle to see with their own eyes the tilted tower, an image familiar to almost everyone since the school years. Many people want to make sure that this is not an illusion or a clever hoax invented to draw attention to the city, and try to understand why it, standing in this position for several centuries, has not yet collapsed, contrary to the laws of physics, earth gravity and common sense.
By the way, the second name of Piazza del Duomo, Piazza dei Miracoli, became popular in the postwar period thanks to the ubiquitous tourists. They regarded the architectural ensemble here as a true marvel, and the tilted Campanile as its crowning jewel.
Why the Leaning Tower of Pisa is falling
There are many legends about the unique landmark of Pisa. One of them tells of the architect Pisano, who did not receive the promised remuneration for his work. Leaving the city, he called the tower after him, which tried to take a step in the direction of the master, but only bent over, and never managed to get off the ground. Everyone understands that the plot is made up and has no relation to the real events, but nevertheless, the beautiful tale has been passed from mouth to mouth for centuries.
In fact, everything looks much more prosaic. The tilt of the Leaning Tower of Pisa was caused by errors in calculations and incompetence in the analysis of soil conditions. First of all, the foundation under the foundation on the southern side was much weaker than on the northern side. The underground construction itself was sunk only three meters, and this despite the fact that the height of the bell tower is almost 60 meters.
The first vertical deflections of the tower appeared after the third floor had been built. Instead of finding a solution to strengthen the foundation, construction was suspended indefinitely. Further they tried to level the belfry by different means, including by increasing the height of the floors from the side of the heel. But all the innovations turned out to be futile – the campanile kept climbing upwards and kept leaning down. The eighth floor, added later, is located at a small angle to the axis of the structure, but it is flatter to the ground level.
At the end of the last century, the tower was straightened. Extensive work was carried out to strengthen the foundation and excavations were made to shrink the structure from the opposite side to the direction of fall. Activities to correct the axis of the bell tower continued in the XXI century. The state of the landmark is constantly monitored.
Despite the positive results in stabilizing the spatial position of the Campanile Duomo, scientists fear that it may collapse as a result of seismic activity.
The tilt of the Leaning Tower of Pisa is unstable. In recent decades, it has fluctuated between 4.2 and 5.5 and 3.9 degrees. There is an opinion that the effect of the fall could have been planned originally, but no confirmation has been found.
The Tower of Pisa today
The unique landmark has several names – Torre di Pisa, Torre Pendente (tilted), Campanile Duomo di Santa Maria Assunta, etc. But in the Russian-speaking world it is known as the Tower of Pisa.
The façade of the first floor of the eight-tiered structure of white marble is decorated with arcature – a decorative belt of false arches with columns, as well as stucco and carved elements. All other floors are surrounded by covered galleries that give an openwork effect to the facade. The arcades are supported by columns with Romanesque capitals.
The upper annex contains 7 bells. The biggest one is the 2.6-ton Assunta, the smallest is Vespruccio (120 kg) and the oldest is Pascuereccia (1262). In the Middle Ages each bell sounded at a certain time, alerting the townspeople to a particular event.
The tower is hollow inside with a diameter of about 15m on the outer walls and about 7m on the inner ones. On the first floor level there is the Fish Hall, which gets its name from the wall bas-relief in the shape of a fish. The entrance is on the west side. There are 3 spiral staircases leading to the top – from the 1st floor to the 6th floor with an exit to the outer gallery, from the 6th floor to the 7th floor, and the smallest one – to the upper level.
- The area of the Tower of Pisa at the basement is 176.7 m².
- The height of the Tower of Pisa is 55.86 m above the ground and 56.7 m from the foundation – 58.36 m.
- The height of each loggia – 5.82 m.
- The area of the stone surfaces is 7735 m².
- The width of the walls – 4.09 m at the base and 2.48 m in the upper levels.
- Weight – about 14.5 tons.
- The number of steps – 273 (up to the bell tower – 296).
People who suffer from cardiovascular and mental diseases, to climb the Leaning Tower of Pisa is not recommended.
The Campanile was the third monumental structure in the square of the wonders, after the Duomo and the Baptistery. Its erection began in 1173, was carried out in three stages and was completed almost 180 years later. Some scholars attribute the project to Diotisalvi, the first architect of the nearby Baptistery. Others argue that the work may belong to Gerardi. However, according to Giorgio Vasari, author of the monumental work on famous painters, sculptors and architects, it was Bonanno Pisano who started the construction of the Tower of Pisa. This was confirmed by the discovery in the nineteenth century of a grave near the bell tower with the inscription on the tombstone “citizen of Pisa Bonanno”.
The first investment in the construction of the campanile was the sum of 60 soledos bequeathed by Signora Berta di Bernardo. The sum was received in January 1172.
The first phase of the tower was completed in 1178, following the discovery of subsidence under the three-story structure. Full-scale work resumed under the direction of Giovanni di Simone and Giovanni Pisano in 1272-75. In the second phase, the bell tower grew another three levels, getting an artificial bend in the opposite direction from the slope. This time construction had to stop due to the defeat of Pisa by Genoa in the naval battle of Meloria (1284). This event was the beginning of the end of the military and commercial ambitions of the Republic of Pisa.
In the first half of the 14th century the 7th floor was built, and by 1371 an addition for bells was erected, which became the 8th level of the tower. It is assumed that the last architect of the campanile was the son of the famous Italian master Andrea Pisano – Tomasso. He is credited with the successful combination of the Romanesque style of the lower part of the structure with the Gothic style of its top.
Claims that Galileo Galilei conducted public experiments on dropping objects of varying mass from the Leaning Tower of Pisa were questioned in the last century. Researchers have noticed the absence in Galileo’s books of references to this event, described by his pupil and biographer Vincenzo Viviani.
Serious restoration work aimed at stabilizing the position of the tower began in the XIX century. At that time they tried to pump out groundwater and extract a small amount of soil from under the underside. The result was opposite: the structure sagged and its roll increased. In the 90s of last century, the threat of collapse of the bell tower became real, so they had to close access to it for tourists and to carry out unique work to stop the progression of the slope. The unique design and the latest technology allowed to stabilize the position and even reduce the tilt.
On October 15, 2001, the Leaning Tower of Pisa reopened to the public once again. In 2008 it was announced to stop its further decline. Until then, the deviation continued to increase by 1 mm per year. At the end of 2018, experts reported that the tilt of the bell tower began to decrease.
Mode of operation 2022
The Leaning Tower of Pisa is open daily:
- 07.01 to 22.02 and 03.10 to 20.12 from 09:00 to 18:00;
- 02/23 to 03/23 and 12/21 to 06/01 – 09:00 to 19:00;
- from 24.03 to 30.04 and from 01.09 to 02.10 – from 09:00 to 20:00;
- From 01.05 to 31.08 – from 09:00 to 19:00-20:00.
Admission ceases 30 minutes before the closure of the attractions.
In special cases – in bad weather, for reasons of public order, for security reasons, during ceremonies and public events – admission may be restricted without prior notice.
Prices and Tours 2022
The cost of admission is 20 euros per person. It is recommended to buy tickets online at the official website, as if there are no seats available you will not be able to climb the tower. Sales begin no earlier than 20 days before the visit. You should choose not only the date, but also a specific time, as the number of people in the tower at the same time is strictly regulated.
You can book tours of Italy, including a tour of the Leaning Tower of Pisa, in the nearest travel agency, while already on site. But it is better to choose in advance a Russian-speaking guide with the service “Experts. Tourister. Ru” service.
How to get to the Tower of Pisa
From Pisa’s Galileo Galilei airport along Piazza dei Miracoli take buses E3 and E25. Get off at the “Torre 1” stop, then head towards Porta Santa Maria Pisa.
Also at “Torre 1” stop:
- city buses – number 21;
- Intercity buses nos. 070, 071, 080, 081, 110, 120, 140, 190, 840, 875;
- LAM rossa shuttle.
The nearest bus stop from the Tower of Pisa is “Via Contessa Matilde, 62” on the north-eastern side of Piazza della Wonderland, opposite Porta San Ranierino. It can be reached by buses 21, E3 and the Navetta E shuttle from Pisa train station – Stazione Pisa Centrale.
Porta San Ranierino leads to the street of the same name. The Tower of Pisa is just a few tens of meters to the right, where you must turn off.
To order a cab you can use mobile applications It Taxi and eTaxi.