The 25 best sights of Bolgar – descriptions and photos

The sights of the Great Bolgar: remnants of an ancient civilization on the Volga

Great Bolgar is situated on the left bank of the Volga River, 140 kilometers from Kazan, near the modern city of Bolgar. The area of the city is 550 hectares and its fortifications are over five kilometers long.

The religious shrine and the historical homeland of the Volga Tatars, known in the Muslim world as “Northern Mecca”, is located three hours drive from Kazan. One of the tourist gems of the Republic of Tatarstan, the Bulgarian State Historical and Architectural Museum-Reserve, which was included in the list of UNESCO World Heritage in 2014, is located here.

Website: Velikiy Bolgar.rf How to get there from Kazan: Kazan-Bolgar bus from Yuzhny bus station, Kazan-Bolgar speedboat from Kazan’s river port Another way to visit Bolgar is to join a tour from Kazan (there are several options here)

Every year Veliky Bolgar hosts celebrations related to the adoption of Islam by the Volga Bulgaria, during which thousands of Muslim pilgrims from Russia and abroad gather here. Every summer a bright and spectacular festival of medieval combat is organized – in 2017 it will be held on August 12 and 13 (festival website).

White Mosque

The White Mosque was built on the territory of the reserve in 2012. The best works of world Islamic architecture served as a model for its construction.

The ensemble of the White Mosque decorates the prayer square, framed by an exquisite arcade of 88 oriental columns; the refined towers of minarets; the main dome with artful stained-glass windows and snow-white buildings designed for the clergy. The interior decoration is no less inspiring: the prayer hall is surrounded by tall columns with crescents, and on the walls one can see the exquisite Arabic script – sayings from the Koran.

Commemorative sign

In 2012, a memorial sign in honor of the adoption of Islam by the Volga Bulgars in 922″ appeared on the territory of the museum-reserve. – The main hall of the memorial building houses the holy book of Muslims – the largest printed Koran in the world, which is listed in the Guinness Book of Records.

The Koran was printed in Italy on special paper that weighs 500kg and is 2m by 1.5m when closed. Cover – malachite cloth, semi-precious stones, ornamental decor of silver covered with gold, calfskin binding.

In the basement is an exposition of the “Museum of the Koran”. Here you can find exhibits telling about the history of Islam and important religious events in the region. A vivid exhibit is the mosaic panel telling about the day when the Volga Bulgarians adopted Islam as a state religion in 922 and the ceremony of meeting the Bulgarian khan Almush with a delegation of the Baghdad Caliph.

Museum of Bulgarian Civilization

Museum of Bulgarian Civilization is situated in a unique building on the bank of the river Volga. It is unique in that it is built into the existing topography, and most of it is underground.

Small in appearance, six stories, with elevators and escalators, it also houses the river station. It is located on the first level, the restaurant on the fifth and the observation deck on the sixth.

The museum tells in detail about the history of the Bulgarians, beginning with the first mention of the tribes dating back to the 3rd century B.C. The museum displays archaeological finds, including weapons, crafts and trades, treasures, coins and a variety of other interesting exhibits.

One can imagine what they were like 700-800 years ago by looking at the models of monuments.

Gabdrakhman Well

Gabdrahman Well is a natural-historical complex connected with the history of the adoption of Islam by the Volga Bulgars. The name of the well is associated with the name of one of the followers of the Prophet Muhammad.

According to legends, the source appeared from the contact of the staff of Sahib Gabdrakhman with the earth, and the healing water helped the recovery of the Khan’s daughter. After this event, the khan and his entourage converted to Islam. Even today, people go to the well, believing that the water is healing.

Eastern Mausoleum

The Eastern mausoleum is a XIV century monument located to the east of the cathedral mosque; by its architecture it belongs to the type of muslim tent tombs with a protruding portal.

The Eastern mausoleum is the most fully preserved monument among other buildings of Bulgarian architecture. At the present time the mausoleum houses an exposition of the museum dig on the history of the city of Bolgar from the 10th to the 18th centuries and the “Great Minaret”, restored in 2000.

Cathedral Mosque

The cathedral mosque is an architectural monument of the 13th century. The cathedral mosque was the main building in medieval Bolgar where prayers and religious rites were performed.

At present the monument also has a cult character for Muslim pilgrims. Visiting believers read namaz at the Cathedral Mosque, especially during the celebration of the next anniversary of the adoption of Islam.

The Small Minaret and the Khan Tomb

The architectural monuments were built in the 12th century according to the legend on the place of burial of the saint Bulgars.

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Small minaret is 16 meters high stone pillar with spiral staircase with 40 steps. The architectural decor of the niche and an entrance part is preserved. It is called Small in difference from the Big Minaret of the cathedral mosque.

Khan’s tomb consisted of 4 mausoleums of which only one survived and served as a burial place for members of the Khan’s family.

Museum “Doctor’s house”.

In 2012 it was decided to open a small museum of medieval medicine on the basis of archaeological findings. Written sources allow to present Bolgar and Volga Bulgaria as one of the centers of science development, including medicine.

A comprehensive study of the medical views of Abu ibn Zakariya ar-Razi, Abu Ali Ibn Sina, Tadjaddin al-Bulgarri, their contribution to medicine and heritage in general had a great influence on the subsequent development of medical science and practice in Volga Bulgaria.

Many Bolgar medics were famous throughout the Muslim world, especially in the field of pharmacology. Their scientific works were widely known and popular. The formation and development of Bulgarian science was closely connected to the great Islamic cultural centers, and it can be considered a part of the general Muslim science. Archaeological research confirms this, and also testifies to the existence of well-developed crafts related to science and medicine.

The Northern Mausoleum

The mausoleum, a 14th century monument, is located opposite the main entrance of the Cathedral Mosque.

Today there is an exhibition of Bulgar epigraphic monuments inside the monument. The preserved epigraphic monuments have inscriptions consisting of Koranic sayings, name, genealogy and date of death of the buried person. The stelae are part of the rich architectural heritage of the Bulgars.

Museum of Bread

Address: Kul Gali, 3 Phone: +7 (84347) 3-14-14 Website: Museum Bread.rf Mode of operation: Monday-WS – 09:00-18:00

In the Museum of Bread all the cycles of bread production, from sowing and reaping to grinding and baking are presented. Here you can see the miller’s house, windmill, watermill, blacksmith’s shop, and various farm tools and implements.

The main exposition is 320 sq.m. in the main building and consists of 3 rooms, where the exhibits represent the role of bread in the life of peoples, the history of farming and cycles of work from plowing to bread trade.

In the miller’s house the interior of the Tatar house was reconstructed, created on the basis of authentic photographs of the economic interiors of those times. Samples of survived household items, home decoration, clothing, tools dating from the late XIX – early XX centuries were used in the reconstruction.

The working watermill and windmill are remarkable objects of the complex. You can go inside the windmill to get acquainted with the process of grinding grain. Here you can also learn about other types of mills that existed in Spassky uyezd at the turn of the XIX-XX centuries.

The complex has a restaurant “Genghis Khan” and a cafe “House of Tea”.

Museum of the History of the Church of the Assumption

Church of the Assumption built in 1732-1734 is a monument of religious architecture, widespread in the Volga villages of the XVIII century. The architecture belongs to the type of well-known churches with the axial location of the separately standing bell tower.

The church was built at the expense of the Kazan merchant Ivan Afanasievich Mikhlyaev in honor of Peter I’s visit to the Bulgarian fortress in 1722.

The church is dedicated to the Assumption of the Mother of God and was built for the monastery established in this area, which became known as the Assumption monastery. After the monastery was transferred to Cheboksary, the church of the Assumption became a parish church. The first restoration work was done back in the 19th century.

In Soviet times the church building was used for household needs and dilapidated. With the creation of the Bulgarian national park in 1969, the church was included in the parish territory of the city of Sofia. It was included in the Bulgarian reserve, along with other monuments of 13th-14th century Bulgarian architecture.

Currently, the church houses an exposition of the Museum of the History of the Assumption Church, which tells the history of Orthodoxy in Volga Bulgaria. The exhibition includes documentary sources about the five saints of the Russian Orthodox Church.

Khan Palace

Address: It is located on the edge of the upper plateau of the fortress, 90-100 m to the north-east of the mosque, above the “Red Chamber”.

It is a brick and stone monumental construction with corner pylon towers. It is one of the earliest monumental structures of the Golden Horde period. In terms of a rectangle (internal dimensions 24×29 meters).

Researched with interruptions in 1994 – 2012, uncovered more than 1000 sq.m. Cumulated excavation material allows you to assign the time of the beginning of its construction in the middle of the XIII century. It has a rich complex of finds, 30% of the numismatic collection are represented by coins from 1240-1259 years.

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As part of the museumification of the site, a project was implemented to turn the monument into an open-air museum, the purpose of which was to preserve the integrity of the architectural remains of the building, to demonstrate the features of the early Horde monumental construction, as well as figurative display of archaeological objects, artifacts, deposits of the cultural layer of the Bulgarian settlement by methods of artistic and graphic reproduction and volume modeling.

To perform the task of protecting the site from precipitation and increase the aesthetic effect over the monument built protective dome, stylistically reproducing the features of light architectural structures of the Eastern Middle Ages.

The Black Chamber

Well-preserved monument of the XIV century. According to the assumptions of academic researchers in different periods the building was a madrasah, khanaka or khan’s court. There are well-preserved elements of XIV century interior decoration in the architecture of the building.

The name of the building has something to do with the legend of the khan’s daughter who saved her brothers with her life.

The Sahab Monument Sign

The memorial sign to Sahabas is erected near the Small Minaret of the Bulgarian settlement, where, according to legend, there is a conventional burial place of a Sahab.

The Oriental Chamber (Khan Bath)

The monument of the XIII century, one of the earliest stone buildings on the ancient settlement. It is located near the center of the ancient city and close to the Khan Palace.

White House

It is a monument of the XIV century. The bath had a similar underground heating system, water supply and sewerage system as the Eastern Chamber.

As the White Chamber was destroyed only in the 1860s, it has had numerous descriptions and drawings, made by P.S. Pallas, E.Erdmann and N.G. Chernetsov in the second half of the 18th and the first half of the 19th centuries.

Bathhouse № 3 and Bathhouse № 2

Bathhouse No.3 is a public city bathhouse in Bolgar. Built in the second half of the XIV century of brick and stone. Only some sections of the southern and western walls have been preserved from the masonry, as well as the floor supports made of limestone slabs.

The area adjoining the bathhouse from the south-east was paved with stone slabs. The size of the building is 15*12 m. The general outline of the building consists of two premises, rectangular in plan and different in size. The central premise included a cross-shaped central hall and four bathing rooms. The northern room was a furnace chamber with a 1.2*1.8 oval-shaped stove.

Bathhouse No.2 is a public city bathhouse of Bolgar, built in the middle of the 14th century. The walls of irregular-shaped stone (sometimes with traces of rough hewn stone) are not more than 80-90 cm thick.

The building has three-part division typical for the majority of Bulgarian baths: the pre-bath room, the central room, and the heating room. The dimensions of the building are 20*11 meters. The entrance is in the southeast wall of the anteroom. The doorway was lined with blocks of well hewn white limestone. To the left of the entrance, in the corner of the room, there is a heated sufa. Only the masonry of the south wall and the two south bathing rooms are extant.

A protective glazed pavilion was built over the bathhouse after archaeological works.

Small Town

The Small Town is situated on the southern tip of the Bulgarian fortress, outside the fortress, adjacent to the truncated top of the triangular area. It provides an oblong rectangle, stretching from north to south and tapering to the south on the left

The internal outline of the complex formed by a moat (no rampart), closed in the north by a gate and in the south – a three-chamber stone building.

Excavations were carried out in 1981 – 1984 on the Little township Institute “Special project restoration” (L. A. Belyaev) as part of the Bulgarian team of Volga archaeological expedition led by T. A. Khlebnikova (Institute of F. Ibrahimov KF of the USSR).

Excavations uncovered 3 monumental structures – two-tower entrance gate, building for ablutions and three-chamber (Southern) building. In the middle of the northern line of the moat of the Small Town there is an entrance to the inner quadrangle – the two-towered entrance gate.


In the XIV century in Bolgar pottery production has reached a sufficient level of development, were formed areas of its location – pottery slobodas.

A large pottery area emerged on the shore of a small Galan or Dutch lake. The Gala Lake is located on the territory of the Bulgarian settlement. The lake shore is clayey, and the abundance of pottery found around the lake is also noteworthy. All this allowed archeologists to suggest the presence of pottery there.

On the lake shore archeologists investigated 4 potteries with one, two, three, and four two-level pots with round and oval bases. The pots, which were made of blocks of adobe, were set in specially dug pits. The area of the lake is an interesting section of a medieval town with remnants of industrial activity.

Museum of Calligraphy

The museum reflects the history of writing used by the Turkic peoples from ancient times to the present day. In their historical development Turkic Tatars used different scripts which suited the spirit of the time: runic script, Uigur script, Arabic script, Latin alphabet (Janalif); Cyrillic script.

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Outstanding figures of the Turkic-Tatar world, including the statesmen of the Turks Kul-Tegin and Yusuf Balasaguni, the Bulgaro-Kazakh poets Kul Gali, Muhammad’yar and Kul-Sharif, the great Tuqai and the expert of Islam Marjani. They used runic script and wrote in Uyghur and Arabic script. The Poets’ Alley adjoins the museum.

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There you can admire a landmark – a tent-shaped tomb erected in the 14th century and preserved to this day. One can see the biggest and the most expensive Koran in the world. You can experience the healing properties of Oriental medicines, made according to ancient recipes in the Healer’s shop. All this is about Bolgar – the colorful city of Tatarstan, in the past the center of Volga Bulgaria. The local atmosphere will take you back in time 10 centuries, and any Bulgarian will introduce you to the legends and ancient traditions. It is no coincidence that the Empress Catherine II and Tsar Peter I visited the ruins of the city.

What to see in Bolgar by yourself and with a guided tour

Travel lovers can apply to the travel agency “TatTourist”, tour operators “Regina”, “Kazan-Tour”, “Rus” and order a tour depending on the amount of free time, interests. Professionals will promptly select the route, hotel and transport.

The second option is to look for guides to Bulgaria on your own. Among them there are licensed and simply experienced guides. You should look for guides based on the reviews. It is more convenient to entrust your vacation to professionals than to deal with the organizational aspects on your own. If you are planning a trip on your car, you need to take into account that the most ancient city traffic is prohibited. The car will have to leave it in the parking lot. And the beauty of antiquity explore on foot with a map. An open bus takes you to them – inexpensive and convenient.

View of the city of Bolgar

You can see the Bulgarian city with a tour, as well as on your own, on your car or bike.

Those who wish can use a Segway or a bicycle, rented. Thus, you can save time on travel and see more interesting objects. This is relevant when tourists have only 1 day to get acquainted with the ancient city. Do not forget to visit one of the largest cities in Tatarstan – Almetyevsk.

Nowadays the settlement becomes the most crowded during the summer festival of medieval combat. The historical reconstructions are a bright and colorful spectacle. Fencers’ battles, medieval dances, equestrian tournaments, bullfighting and fire shows are elements of the international festival. By the way, the great Bulgar in 2016 topped the list of small towns in Russia, attractive for tourists. We recommend to see all the attractions of Kazan.

Small Town

The small town was located inside the moat and was a rectangular area measuring 55 by 110 meters

Until now, researchers have not figured out the purpose of the building. It was situated in the moat. It is believed that it could have been a place of ritual ablutions, or a resting place for passing caravans. Only the pylons of the building, staircase steps and plastered walls have been preserved.

Baths № 2 and № 3

Both were public institutions. They were built of stone and bricks. Bathrooms, limestone floor, heated benches (suffas), furnace rooms are now ruins under a protective cover. Historical documents tell about their original appearance.

The Black Chamber

It is located in a field, near the river. The gloominess of the building suggested to scholars that it was a tomb or a court. The legend tells that the guilty ones were punished here by four authoritative citizens, led by the khan. Judges so menacingly appeared in a hall, that the mere sight intimidated the future prisoners. The building was badly damaged by raids and fires. Today it can only be viewed from the outside, and one can take selfies against its background.

Memorial sign to the Sahibs, preachers of Islam

Today the Rotunda does not have an official address in Voronezh, but it is easy to find it: the monument is located in the Transportny Garden (intersection of Transportnaya and Burdenko Streets).

It was erected on the burial site of one of the disciples of St. Mohammed. Sahib was sent by the prophet to Bulgaria to heal people. For 12 years they fulfilled their purpose, then two left the city, and the third stayed there until his death. The sign reminds people that the past and ascetics must be honored.


The area of the Pottery Settlement is a section of the medieval town with remnants of productive activities.

The area of the pottery sloboda in Bolgar was discovered thanks to archaeologists. The discovered materials allow to reconstruct the technological process of production, starting from clay preparation to shaping products on circles. Kopliks, korchags, kumgans were made in 4 pottery workshops. Today they are preserved for restoration.

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The Northern Mausoleum

Everyone who was born in the USSR will feel nostalgic, and those who were born later will be able to immerse themselves in the atmosphere of that time.

Inside there is an exhibition of monuments of minor architecture – tombstones found on the territory of the Bulgarian fortress

It is also called the Monastery cellar because it was used to store food. The construction of such structures at that time was a tribute to fashion. Interestingly, they were erected… over the burial places of city dwellers. Skeletons found during excavations prove this fact. The mausoleum survived only partially. Its exposition includes gravestones with inscriptions in Arabic and Bulgarian.

White House

The White chamber was destroyed in the 1860s, that is why its numerous descriptions and drawings were preserved

The White chamber is mentioned in many famous works of ancient literature, for example, in the poem “One Thousand and One Nights”.

These are the ruins of a bathhouse. Mentions of the structure are found in works of antiquity, including the famous “Thousand and One Nights. The current White Chamber had rooms for both sexes, individual rooms with baths and fountains. And the common room was used for social gatherings. The White Chamber was, in fact, the only place where Oriental women could socialize and take a break from everyday life. By the way, one of Shishkin’s sketches depicts the structure in its splendor.

Museum of Calligraphy

One of the historical monuments in the open air. This is a series of plates with carved letters of the Turkic peoples. Connoisseurs of the written language can see the Arabic script and the Latin, Uigur and Cyrillic alphabets.

Museum of the Bulgarian civilization

Museum is built into the hillside on the bank of the Volga River not to disturb the historical panorama of the ancient Bulgarian fortress

The Museum exposition tells about the history of the Volga Bulgars, the distant ancestors of the modern Tatar people

Opened in 2013, it has already been entered in the UNESCO World Heritage category. There are unique artifacts and landmarks in the 380-hectare reserve. In total, it is about 100 objects. And the exhibition pavilions of the museum are located on an area of 2 thousand meters. The ancient artifacts are viewed with interest by tourists through the use of interactive processes.

Gabdrakhman Well

Gabdrachman Well has recently been restored, a rotunda was built over the well, and a terraced park with paths, stairs, bushes and benches has been laid out around it.

A natural spring called Gabdrahman sahabe koesi. A whole architectural complex was built around it. The legend says that the holy well was erected in the 10th century as a sign of gratitude to the Tabibs for the cure of Tuibike, daughter of Bulgarian Khan. The well allegedly appeared where Sahib Gabdrakhman touched the earth with his staff. The well itself was built of brick, with a wooden mechanism for lifting holy water. The dome above it is supported by 7 columns.

Healer’s House Museum

The Healer’s House is a depository of healers’ manuscripts, recipes, and tools for making potions. Anyone can buy a variety of extracts and infusions in the old pharmacy and test them. And this means that you can return from Bulgars rested and rejuvenated.

Eastern Mausoleum

Inside the building there is a peculiar exposition, representing stages of life of the fortress by the example of the archaeological site, from the XI century to the present day.

At the beginning of the XVIII century in connection with the existence of an Orthodox monastery was rebuilt and used as a church.

It is a hipped vault. Compared with other monuments of culture, this one is the best preserved. Its structure is original: the square-shaped base transforms into an octahedron. There are false niches in the construction. In sunlight they give the gray building majesty and luxury. In the dome of the building one can see the yurt holes. It is a traditional element of Muslim architecture. And the role of today’s microphones in the mausoleum was performed by pipes of sixty centimeters in length. They improved the acoustics of the building.

Cathedral Mosque

Built in the 13th century by khan Baty the mosque became the center of the city. For its construction was used white marble in quantity of 1200 tons! Bulgarians came here during namaz. Originally the mosque was built as a rectangle. But due to the war damages it suffered and was reconstructed with stone to make it strong. The walls of the mosque and its towers have been preserved to this day. An old legend says that one can make the most secret desires come true here, just by embracing one of the columns of the ancient structure. Being in Tatarstan we also recommend to visit the Tauba Mosque, which is located in the city of Naberezhnye Chelny.

Museum of Bread

Thanks to the museum exhibits you can trace the historical path of agricultural development and improvement of agricultural tools

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The exhibition in the Museum is devoted to hard work of farmers, demonstrating a daily life of farmers

On the territory of 5 hectares there are wooden buildings, which show the entire process of making bread from the stage of its cultivation. In the museum building you can touch all the tools used in breadmaking. Tourists can simulate the plowing or harvesting with the help of interactive technology. Children will be interested, because the exhibits are accompanied by electronic games, there is a variety of toys. The tour ends with a tea party with an assortment of fragrant pastries. You can enjoy aromatic pancakes from the real oven! You can also buy the pastries as a souvenir treat.

Khan Palace

This is the first white-stone construction in the city. The palace was built before the mosque. It is also called the House of Towers. This is the third largest building after the mosque and the East House. The brick construction had a rectangular form, with pylons in the corners. Khan Palace was originally built as a mosque on the top plateau. Its foundation was made of rubble and poured with mortar. The walls were made of blocks on the outside and plinth on the inside. Researches of the palace began at the end of the last century. And their most valuable finding was the coins of the 13th century.

Eastern Chamber

Its second name was Khan Bath. The early building was located in the center of the city, near the palace of the Khan. In its structure it was similar to the White chamber: the walls were made of limestone, inside their cavities were filled with rubble. Hot air was poured under the floor of the washing area. Historians first investigated the East Chamber at the end of the last century and determined that there was an oven, a pool and a water reservoir.

Museum of the History of the Church of the Assumption

It is interesting as a historical site because it is almost completely intact. It was built in the Baroque style in the 18th century on the money of the merchant from Kazan Mikhlyaev. The cradle of Orthodoxy appeared in the land of the Muslims, because at that time there was an active policy of Russification. It is interesting that tombstones and material from monuments and burial vaults were used to build the church. At first, the church was a part of the monastery, but then it became a parish church. It acquired a bell tower. Its building is distinguished by its archaism and power and looks more like a fortress than a temple. Today in it operates a museum, which will be interesting to visit for history lovers.

The Small Minaret, the khan’s tomb

As the construction has a tent, the scientists join it to the Crimean, Minor Asian and Azerbaijani towers of the early period.

Minarets have different tower shapes. Here it is round. And near it there is a cemetery of the deceased of noble descent – khan’s. The graves were placed in the direction from north to south. They consisted of special boxes and stone vaults, built over them. Excavations have allowed to find ruins of a small mausoleum. True, looted by treasure hunters. The minaret was built in the 14th century, and at the end of the 20th century it was rebuilt. Today it is a massive column on a cubic base. For tourists, the construction is interesting because the narrow spiral staircase you can climb up and admire the beauties of the city. However, the ascent is steep and the steps are narrow, so care is needed. But the view from the top and selfies are worth it!

Commemorative sign

The building is used for its original purpose – it is the main office of the Central Bank of the Russian Federation in Nizhny Novgorod region.

It is a majestic building with a copper dome and a crescent. It is octagonal, like a mosque, built according to the canons of the ancient Bulgarian culture. The marble cladding with decorations adds grandeur to the monument. The main surprise awaits tourists inside the premises. This is the biggest Koran in the world. The weight of the shrine is 800 kg, its length is 200 cm. The book is inlaid with emeralds. The value of the holy book is more than one million euros. In the basement of the building there is an exhibition complex. Its center is decorated with a huge mosaic panel.

White Mosque

It is a modern building, which is called the pearl of spirituality of Tatarstan. The walls of the mosque are decorated with arabesques, muqarnasses, geometric figures – the classic ornament of Islamic decor. The prayer hall is of two levels. Its area is 180 sq. m, and the main ornament is the chandelier, 25 m in diameter! Between the buildings of the Mosque there is a musalla (square), paved with granite. The decoration of the square is 88 columns and a pond. The representatives of different religions can appreciate it and enjoy the beauty of the temple. The tourists of Bolgar consider it to be the most impressive one.

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