Switzerland is a European country, most of which is occupied by the Alps

Switzerland

Swiss anthem

Switzerland is a compact European country and one of the richest countries in the world, neighboring Germany, Italy, France, Austria and Liechtenstein. You can judge the level of success and popularity of this picturesque place by the range of tourist options alone. Skiing and thermal spas, medieval abbeys and meditative panoramas of the Alps, organic gastronomy and terraced vineyards – modern Switzerland has concentrated all the advantages of its closest neighbors, without losing any of its national colors and personality.

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General Information

Switzerland is a travel destination with a quality label and the image of a resort destination for the powerful, where everything has a whiff of old world stability, big money and polite arrogance. However, if you look closely, it turns out that the high cost of recreation in the homeland of William Tell is somewhat exaggerated. Moreover, if you walk not the most mainstream routes, do not choose resorts, designed for wealthy snobs, and not settle in boutique hotels, it is possible to spend a fascinating and not this expensive vacation.

Speaking of Switzerland, the first thing one thinks of is expensive watches, elite chocolates and delicious cheeses. Indeed, all this is in the Confederation, and in such quantities, which is enough for anyone who is ready for easy spending. Those who come to the country for the experience, too, will not be left stranded. After all, there is always the possibility of bursting into the emerald valleys and gorges, choose a tour of the mystical lakes with stops in the campsites, or drive to peripheral wineries. In addition, in Switzerland you can successfully both treat and learn – local clinics and universities are beyond competition for several decades.

Lovers of holidays in the style of “eco” should settle in the countryside, where the owners of farms and agro-yards will introduce the pastoral and outgoing Switzerland – the one where there is a place to sleep in the barns, intimate conversation with the chimes of Alpine cows and familiarity with the recipes of family cheese-making. And of course, do not forget that small and self-sufficient Switzerland is a 26 cantons with different traditions, four national languages and an amazing mix of four mentalities: practical and basic German, witty and frivolous French, Italian, which overflows with excess of feelings, and the original patriotic Swiss.

Swiss cities

Climate

Switzerland has a continental climate, which varies according to the relief. The westernmost cantons, for example, have a strong Atlantic influence, but the further south and east the contrasts between the seasons become marked. The winters are moderately cold, with large temperature differences between the plains and the mountains. While January in Geneva is almost always +2. +3 ° C, in the high valleys of the Jura canton the thermometer sinks to the “Siberian” mark of -30 ° C.

Two categories of tourists like winter Switzerland: fans of skiing and lovers of sipping sizzling mulled wine at the Christmas markets and Shrovetide carnival. For shopaholics, January is the most “fishy” month – sales in Switzerland start after the Christmas break. Spring comes to the Alps early, but the weather is not stable, so those who come to the country in March, will be more comfortable to explore the sights of Geneva and Zurich – it is noticeably warmer there. April is a more pleasant, though a little rainy month with an average air temperature of +13 ° C. In addition, spring is the Catholic Easter and Parade of the Guilds in Zurich, accompanied by a lively public festivities.

Summer starts in May and in June, the Swiss besiege the lakeside beaches to get a nice golden tan. It’s warmest in the south of the country during this time, where the air warms up to +28. +30 °С. It is not so hot in the northern cantons, but it is also quite comfortable – about +19. +24 °С. As for water temperatures, the most invigorating swimming will be in Lake Geneva, and the warmest – in Lakes Lugano and Maggiore in the canton of Ticino. The highlight of the local August event is a flamboyant techno-party called Street Parade, essentially no different from Berlin’s rampant Love Parade.

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Autumn comes to Switzerland right on schedule, that is, in September. In the south of the country, it is dry and warm, but in the central cantons, the rains are a frequent visitor. October in the homeland of the most accurate clocks is overcast and gloomy, windy, frightening with night frosts, and in the mountainous areas there are also serious frosts. However, in late autumn the most impatient “lords of skiing and snowboarding” come to the Confederation, as in the last days of November the slopes of most ski resorts are opened.

Swiss history

Traces of human presence in Switzerland can be traced back to the Stone Age. In the 5th century BC the tribes of Celtic-Rhaetians and Helvetians came here, because of whom the country got its first name – Helvetia. For several centuries the Celts were in conflict with the Roman Empire, sometimes attacking its colonies, sometimes forming alliances with the Gauls against Roman domination. The Helvets were so vexed by the “eternal city” that the Romans had to launch an urgent military campaign to annex the Swiss territories.

The Middle Ages freed Helvetia from Roman rule, but turned her into a dependency of the Germanic tribes and feudal fragmentation. It was in the fourth century that Christianity made its way into the Alps. Switzerland began to take shape as a state under Charlemagne, who divided the country into counties. In 843, however, the German kings usurped the Swiss “inheritance” of the monarch, who later incorporated Helvetia into the Holy Roman Empire.

In the course of the thirteenth century, Swiss cities turned into centers of international trade and Mediterranean routes ran through them. At the same time the cantons of Schwyz, Uri and Unterwalden were united in a military alliance to resist the pressure of the Habsburgs who ruled the Holy Roman Empire. The cities from these administrative units later succeeded in achieving free status, the first step towards Swiss independence.

At the end of the eighteenth century Helvetia was still not a centralized state, and so when, in 1795, the cantons began to experience revolutionary outbreaks, France took advantage of the situation by bringing its troops into Helvetic territory. Switzerland succeeded in gaining independence from French influence only in 1815 at the Congress of Vienna, although social and religious unrest continued unabated. In 1848 the country finally had a constitution and the status of a Confederation, and in 1850 the capital was moved to Bern.

Mentality and language

The native Swiss are practical, mostly conservative and law-abiding patriots. The concept of personal space in the Confederation is sacrosanct, so it can take years or even decades to make friends and just friends. At the same time, the attitude towards rights and freedoms among the descendants of the Helvetians is ambiguous. For example: a Swiss who is disadvantaged by even something insignificant will not be lazy to hold a solitary picket, but will never turn on the vacuum cleaner on Sunday, because it is against the law of the canton. And the locals also love to travel, both abroad and within their country. However, statistics show that the Swiss don’t like to get too far from their homeland, preferring to stay at the resorts of neighboring France, Italy and Germany.

There are four official languages in the Confederation: German, French, Italian and Romansh. German is spoken by 65 percent of the population, but it is not a standard Hochdeutsch language, but a dialectal variant, which is difficult to understand even for Germans. At the same time, any Swiss living in a German-speaking canton can speak the correct Goethe’s language and indulge in it when the situation demands it. The share of French and Italian speakers is several times less: 23 % and 8.3 %, and of those who speak Romansh even 1 %. At the same time there is an interpenetration of cultures – most residents speak at least two of the national languages (usually German and French), diluting them with English, which they learn at school.

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Money

The national currency is the Swiss franc (CHF). CHF 1 is 76.46 rubles (as of March 2020). In addition to paper bills, coins in denominations of ½, 1, 2 and 5 francs and small coins of 5, 10 and 20 rappen are used. It is best to travel with a sufficient amount of cash francs or at least euros. If you need to convert money on the spot, it can be done at bank branches, as well as official points of exchange, located at train stations, hotels, airports and department stores.

The standard working hours of exchange offices at airports – from 06:00 to 21:00, banks – from 08:00 to 16:00, rarely – until 18:00. As for the rate, it is the same everywhere, and deviations, if any, are insignificant. In cases where the stock of cash is small, it is worth using a credit card. In Switzerland it is realistic to pay for almost everything with it, including tickets from the ticket machines at public transport stops. You can withdraw money from ATMs in Switzerland without any complications. Some of them only dispense francs, and some also dispense euros.

Attractions in Switzerland

The compact Switzerland is dotted with medieval monuments and constantly enthralled by its epic natural backdrops, so prepare yourself to ponder the dilemma of where to go first. In addition, this is the rare case where the size of the village does not matter – the country is full of tiny communities, whose panoramas can outweigh the advertised tourist sites of the capital.

Among the most spoiled with attention and money you can’t help but include Lucerne, where Charlie Chaplin, Alfred Hitchcock and even Queen Victoria loved to visit. Leo Tolstoy also visited the capital of the canton, and as usual he left unnoticed and dissatisfied with the snobbery of the local nobility. Today Lucerne’s guests are welcomed by streets of painted houses resembling frosted gingerbread, Kapelbrücke bridge-gallery, turquoise domes of Jesuit Church, Gutsch castle, which was transformed into a luxury hotel, and the amazing Museum of transport with retro locomotives, cable cars and electric cars.

Travelers interested in history simply must spend time in Zurich. Lurking in the old quarter of Switzerland’s moneyiest city are the Romanesque silhouette of Grossmünster Cathedral and the sharp spire of the Fraumuenster Abbey, once home to nuns of the nobility who took monastic vows willingly and forcedly. The church of St. Peter and the Swiss National Museum are also located here. Speaking of museums: they are original and certainly not boring. An example of this – FIFA Museum, at whose interactive exhibits every second soccer fan dreams to come across.

The capital of the country, Bern, is a thorough, solidly patriarchal city with a photogenic old center. Here it is necessary to stop by the walls of the Bern Cathedral to be imbued with macabre bas-reliefs and stained-glass windows, and to remember the show, played out hourly on the Citglogge tower. Incidentally, the hands have been ticking since 1530. If you’re looking for atypical sights, take selfies near the city’s fountains. For instance, against the backdrop of the Child Eater, which would look more organic in an Asian temple ensemble than in tolerant and child-loving Europe. Also Bern is the city of bridges and museums, so the first should certainly be counted, and the second – to get a ticket.

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Lausanne is a luxurious resort on the shores of Lake Geneva, where Coco Chanel long “sat” after the French accused her of collaborationism. Today’s Lausanne is above all the Gothic Cathedral of Notre Dame, the Church of St. Francis and the Rumine Palace. Fans of antiquities and fine arts will appreciate the local museums – History Museum, Museum of Design and Applied Art and Art Brut. Those who want to party hard will find bars and nightclubs in abundance in Lausanne.

The modern and historical sights of Geneva exist in a harmonious symbiosis, so if you find yourself in the “capital of the world”, do not miss the city’s main “Goth” – Notre Dame Basilica, the eclectic facades of St. Peter’s Cathedral, the Place du Burg de Four, remembering the sandals of the Roman legionnaires, and the Palais des Nations. Positive photos against the backdrop of the mighty Jets d’Eau and the Flower Clock are also a must, as are promenades through the Vieux Carouge, the Botanical Gardens and the halls of the Museum of Arts and History.

The youth and student city of Fribourg is worth staying in, already because its historic center has remained in almost unchanged condition. Here tourists can enjoy Gothic cathedrals with Baroque chapels, old bridges with roofs, and several curious museums with puppets and modern art exhibits. The city itself, like the canton, is divided into French and German parts, the boundary between which is the river Sarin. To make it clearer: the inhabitants of the western bank chatter in French, and the population of the eastern bank prefers the language of Goethe.

If you want traditional and stereotypical Switzerland, go to Appenzell, where the parliament meets on the square, like hundreds of years ago, and women have had the right to vote only since 1991. In the compact town, nestled at the foot of the Alps, it’s hard to see any dominant architectural features, so wander among the quaint toy houses and ancient chapels, and marvel at the caring way the farmers greet the cows coming back from pasture.

Stein am Rhein, on the banks of the Rhine, is another Swiss town that looks like an old postcard. The streetscapes of the settlement are mostly newfangled – during World War II the place was “under attack” by Allied bombers – but the atmosphere of the commune does not become any less fairy-tale. For those who have had enough of “gingerbread” houses, it is worth broadening the range of impressions in Thun, where there is a snow-white castle, lots of pretty wooden bridges, and the pedestrian zone of the central street passes through the roofs of cafes and stores.

A visit to Gruyere is good for all fans of hard cheeses, as it is their birthplace. At the factory where the alpine tasty things are made, tourists are allowed, but do not linger at the enterprise, because in Gruyere there is also a very interesting castle and eerie Museum of Giger, the genius of fantastic realism, who invented the image of monsters for the blockbuster movie “Alien”.

Switzerland is a European country, most of which is occupied by the Alps

Switzerland, an amazing state, located in Central Europe. On an area of just over 40 thousand km2, live about 8.5 million people. Switzerland has no access to the sea, but for her it is not a disadvantage. There are many beautiful sights and historic buildings. Each city boasts some interesting places that every traveler should know. Here are some of the most famous cities and important tourist spots.

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St. Gallen

Switzerland is a European country with most of its territory occupied by the Alps

St. Gallen

St. Gallen, the largest city in eastern Switzerland , was once considered the “Typewriter of Europe”. This period is now marked by the ornate Rococo library of the local Catholic abbey, which keeps rare books and manuscripts created by local monks in the Middle Ages. The walls of the library are decorated with frescoes and beautiful moldings. The Abbey complex also houses the Baroque cathedral, which, along with the works of art and the library, is a UNESCO World Heritage Site.

St. Moritz

Switzerland is a European country with most of its territory occupied by the Alps

St. Moritz

St. Moritz, one of the most attractive winter sports resorts in the world, is located on the north shore of Lake Moritzsee. It is located at an altitude of 1,856 meters above sea level and is a great starting point for summer hiking or winter sports. The local ski resorts of Lagalb, Corvach and Corvilla hosted the Winter Olympics in 1928 and 1948. St. Moritz owes its fame not only to ski racing, but also to the mineral iron springs with high content of carbon dioxide. The sun shines here 322 days a year, and has become the emblem of the city. It is because of its sunny climate St. Moritz, a popular resort for winter and summer holidays.

The Daubenwand Trail

Switzerland is a European country with most of its territory occupied by the Alps

The Daubenwand Trail

In this area there is a narrow path called Daubenwand, carved in the rock on the Gemmipass Pass. In the Middle Ages it was used as a trade route and was one of the few ways to cross the entire Alpine massif. In 1740 the stone path was widened to improve the passability for two cargo horses. Today the Daubenwand serves as a hiking trail that is popular for its beautiful views of the surrounding countryside.

Swiss National Park

Switzerland is a European country with most of its territory occupied by the Alps

Swiss National Park

The Swiss National Park was founded in 1914 and was the first national park in the Alps. It has an area of 172 km and is located in the eastern part of Switzerland, in the canton of Graubünden, above the Lower Inn Valley. Capricorn, chamois and deer, as well as eagles, vultures and even colonies of marmots take refuge in the park. Many rare specimens of flora grow here, such as edelweiss and alpine poppies. From the 80 kilometers of marked hiking trails you can enjoy the charm of unspoiled Swiss nature.

Tour de Mayen

Switzerland is a European country with most of its territory occupied by the Alps

Tour de Mayen

Tour de Mayen, an impressive mountain peak rising 2,326 m north of the city of Leysen in the Swiss canton of Vaud. To the east of it, separated by a small valley, is a few meters higher than the Tour d’Ai. Both are shaped by an impressive limestone cliff projecting above a hilly grassy ridge. The hiking trail from Leysen leads to the peak of Mayen , which can be shortened by climbing the cable car Le Bernheuse to an altitude of 2048 m . The summit offers a beautiful view of Lake Geneva, the Bernese Oberland and the surrounding area.

Trümmelbach waterfalls

The largest underground waterfalls in Europe are in the Lauterbrunnen Valley, often referred to as the valley of 72 waterfalls. This is a series of ten cascading glacial waterfalls that traverse a height difference of 140 meters within the mountain. It is a very noisy place, full of thunderous thumps and foaming water. The internal system of 600 meters long, consisting of stairs, galleries and tunnels, was discovered in 1913.

Switzerland is a European country with most of its territory occupied by the Alps

Trümmelbach waterfalls.

You can walk over the bridge over the cauldron and enjoy the spectacle up close. The water rolls through earth and excavated pits, canals and troughs at a rate of up to 20,000 liters per second. It carries up to 20,000 tons of sediment each year. The waterfall is fed from a 24 km2 basin, half of which is covered by snow and the glacial walls of the Eiger, Menck and Jungfrau mountains. The Trümmelbash waterfalls are listed as a UNESCO World Natural Heritage Site in the Jungfrau-Alech region.

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Staubbach Falls

Switzerland is a European country with most of its territory occupied by the Alps

Staubbach Falls

The Staubbach Falls, 297 m high, are one of the highest free-fall waterfalls in Switzerland. It is one of the 72 waterfalls located in the magical Lauterbrunnen Valley. Its beauty also inspired famous poets Lord Byron and J. W. von Goethe to write holiday poems. In summer, the water falling on the rocks is sprinkled with a light breeze, creating the appearance of a misty haze. Because of this, the waterfall was named Staub or Dust. In the 1930s, the Staubbach Falls were depicted on a Swiss postage stamp.

Montreux

The city of Montreux is located on the northeastern shore of Lake Geneva in Switzerland. Although Montreux is small in population, about 25,000, it boasts a list of celebrities who have spent part of their lives here. The most famous are philosopher Jean-Jacques Rousseau, writer Vladimir Nabokov, and singer Freddie Mercury, whose sculpture by Czech sculptor Irena Sedletska can even be found on the shores of the lake. The city also offers a very favorable climate, perhaps for the same reason it has been an important wine region since the 12th century.

Switzerland is a European country with most of its territory occupied by the Alps

Montreux

Today, tourism is well developed, and Montreux attracts visitors in winter and summer. While the winter season offers Christmas fairs and the adorned Christmas decorations of the nearby Chillon Castle, in the summer there is a spirit of festivals. The most famous of them is the jazz festival, which is held every year in early July. Montreux is considered an important cultural center of the Swiss Riviera and is famous for its neatness and scenic beauty. In 1990, it won the Swiss National Award for Architectural Heritage.

Jungfrau

Switzerland is a European country with most of its territory occupied by the Alps

Jungfrau

The Jungfrau region is located around the mountain range of the Bernese Alps, which consists of the three highest peaks, the Eiger (3,970 m), the Mönch (4,107 m) and the Jungfrau (4,158 m). The last of these is referred to by the Swiss as the “summit of Europe. This “big trio” of mountain giants has also made mountaineering history. Especially the Eiger, whose North Face is one of the highest walls in Europe with a drop of more than 1,800 m and, because of its complexity, is also a difficult mountain to climb for all experienced climbers. The saddle of the Jungfraujoch Glacier (3454 m) can also be reached by suburban train. A serrated railroad leads here, and it is between the Jungfrau and Mönch mountains that there is the highest railway station in Europe. The Jungfrau region was inscribed on the UNESCO List of World Natural Heritage in 2001.

Pointe de Dron

Switzerland is a European country with most of its territory occupied by the Alps

Pointe de Dron

Massive rocky peak above the pass and the Great Saint Bernard Lake. It rises to a height of 2950 meters, and it is the highest point that can be reached. The views from above are beautiful.

The Fourka Pass

Switzerland is a European country with most of its territory occupied by the Alps

The Fourka Pass

The Fourka Pass is the natural border between the cantons of Uri and Valais and leads to south-eastern Switzerland. It is located at an altitude of 2431 m, so the local road, built in the 1960s, is accessible only in the summer months. In winter, you can travel between cantons on the Glacier Express train and go through a tunnel under the entire mountain range. Water melting from the Ronegletcher Glacier in the valley below the Furk Saddle forms the source of the Rhône River.

Rhine Falls

Switzerland is a European country with most of its territory occupied by the Alps

Rhine Falls

Reinfall, the largest waterfall in Europe, is located near Neuhausen, next to Laufen Castle. With its width of 150 m and the large volume of water, it provides a unique spectacle of water masses falling from a height of 23 m. Through Laufen Castle you can reach the waterfalls in the immediate vicinity.

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