The Republic of Sierra Leone is an African country situated on the coastline of the Atlantic Ocean. Her country is bordered by Guinea and Liberia. It has an area of 72 000 km². Its capital is Freetown.
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The more populous and agricultural part of Sierra Leone is lowland, sloping down towards the ocean. However, in the northeastern part of the country, in the territory of the Leone-Liberia mountain range, the relief is more uneven, with an average altitude of about 600 m. The highest point of the country – Mount Bintimani (1945 m). The northern part of the country is also mountainous, with the spurs of the Futa Djallon massif located on its territory.
The climate is subequatorial, hot and humid (one of the rainiest countries in West Africa), with a dry winter season (November – April) and humid summer (May – October). The average annual rainfall on the coast, including Freetown, is 4000-4500 mm and the average monthly temperature ranges from +24 to +27 ˚С. In the interior of the country the climate is cooler (20-23 ° C) and drier (2000-2500 mm per year). In the winter season, droughts and sandstorms are not uncommon, when the Harmatan sharply increases the air temperature and brings sand and dust from the Sahara.
The river network of Sierra Leone is very developed. The main rivers are the Great Skarsies (Kolente), the Little Skarsies (Kaba), the Rockel, the Jong, the Mabole, the Seva, the Moa and the Makona. The coast has many convenient bays, in particular the port of Freetown.
Along the coast stretches a strip of mangroves. The main type of vegetation is a tall grass savanna with thickets of shrubs and solitary baobab trees. Moist equatorial forests, which remain only on the eastern slopes of mountains and highlands and in the south, occupy less than 5% of the country.
When Sierra Leone gained independence on April 27, 1961, legislative and executive powers were vested in Parliament and the Cabinet, and the nominal head of state was held by the British monarch, represented by the Governor-General. Following constitutional amendments in 1971, Sierra Leone was proclaimed a republic, with executive power vested in the president.
In 2000 Tony Blair sent 1,500 British troops to Sierra Leone, who took on the defense of the capital Freetown from the rebel army of the Revolutionary United Front. On May 30, 2007 Tony Blair was solemnly proclaimed Supreme Leader of Sierra Leone. The new title formally gave Tony Blair the right to sit in the Sierra Leonean parliament. In this way, according to The Daily Telegraph, the country’s authorities celebrated his role in ending the civil war.
Sierra Leone has substantial mineral, agricultural and fishing resources but remains one of the poorest countries in the world. Its GDP per capita in 2009 was $900 (215th in the world). About 70% of the population is below the poverty level.
About half of the working population is engaged in subsistence agriculture. Cultivated – rice, coffee, cocoa, palm trees (nuts and oil), peanuts; cattle breeding; fishery.
Industry – mining of diamonds, manufacture of beer, cigarettes, shoes.
Export goods – diamonds, cocoa, coffee, fish.
Main buyers (in 2008) – Belgium 39.2%, USA 22.1%, India 7%, France 5.4%, Netherlands 4.1%.
Imports – food, manufactured goods, fuel.
The main suppliers (in 2008) – China 10,2%, USA 7,8%, Belgium 6,6%, Great Britain 6,5%, Cote d’Ivoire 6,2%, India 5,6%, Thailand 5,1%.
It is a member of the international organization of the ACP countries.
Sierra Leone is divided into 3 provinces and the Western Region (metropolitan area) divided into 15 districts. There is also a parallel traditional division of the country into chiefdoms.
|№||Russian name||English name||Administrative center||Number of districts||Population, (2004)people||Territory, km²||Density, persons/km²|
|1||Western Area||Western Area||Freetown||2||947 122||557||1700,40|
|2||Eastern Province||Eastern Province||Kenema||3||1 187 532||15 553||76,35|
|3||Northern Province||Northern Province||Makeni||5||1 718 240||35 936||47,81|
|4||Southern Province||Southern Province||Бо||5||1 377 067||19 694||69,92|
|Total||15||5 229 961||71 740||72,90|
Population – 5.2 million (July 2010 estimate).
Annual growth rate – 2.2% (fertility – 5 births per woman);
Life expectancy – 53 years for men and 58 years for women;
Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection – 1.7% (2007 estimate);
Literacy – 46% men, 24% women (2004 estimate).
Ethnicity – about 20 aboriginal tribes constitute about 90% of the population (the Temne – 30%, the Mende – 30%, the others – 30%), the Creoles (descendants of freed slaves from the Caribbean islands) – about 10%, small number of whites, Arabs, and Indians.
Languages: English (official, most people do not speak it), Mende (spoken in the south), Temne (spoken in the north), Krio (Creole language based on English, a language of international communication, it is understood by up to 95% of the population).
Religions: Muslims (60%), aboriginal cults (30%), Christians (10%).
On September 5, 1607 the first recorded performance of Shakespeare’s Hamlet was performed in what is now Sierra Leone. The British East India Company had operations in India, and the route to India in those days lay around Africa. Off the coast of Sierra Leone in 1607 several of the company’s large vessels were forced to anchor, and the captain of one of the vessels, the Red Dragon, loved the theater and believed that staging plays was better for his crew than idleness or gambling.
The modern system of popular education in Sierra Leone has its roots in the time of the first English settlements in the area in the late 18th and early 19th centuries. To train teachers and priests from among the Africans, the first institution of higher education, Fourah Bay College, was opened in 1827. Until the end of World War I, all educational institutions were located in coastal areas. Although by the end of World War II the public education system had expanded inland, most institutions were still concentrated along the coast. In 1991 in Sierra Leone there were c. 2,000 elementary school (414,200 students), 227 secondary schools (116,000 students).
The University of Sierra Leone, established on the basis of Fura Bay College and Njala University College, had 2.3 thousand students. In addition, there were 16 teacher training and technical colleges. After 1988, the buildings of Njala College and some other high schools were destroyed. Many schools did not function because of student unrest, teachers’ strikes, and general political instability.
As early as the nineteenth century, Freetown became a West African center for the dissemination of European culture. The Creole community gave the country famous scholars, including historians A. Sibthorpe and James Africanus Horton. Noteworthy among today’s intellectual elite are biochemist Davison Nicol and writer William Conton.
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Coat of Arms – Flag – Hymn – State System – Constitution – Parliament – Administrative Division – Geography – Cities – Capital City – Population – Languages – History – Economy – Currency – Culture – Religion – Cinema – Literature – Music – Celebrations – Sports – Education – Science – Transportation – Tourism – Post (history and stamps) – Internet – Armed Forces – Foreign Policy Portal “Sierra Leone”
¹ Western Sahara, according to UN documents, is a non-colonized territory. The Sahrawi ADR, proclaimed on its territory, is a member of the African Union. Much of the territory is occupied by Morocco.
- Alphabetical States
- Sierra Leone
- Unitarian States
- English-speaking countries and territories
- West Africa
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See what “Sierra Leone” is in other dictionaries:
Sierra Leone – REPUBLIC Sierra Leone, a state in West Africa. A state that declared independence in 1961, it retains a name that dates back to the 15th century. Around 1461, the slave trader Peru di Sintra discovered a mountain that, for its resemblance to a lying lioness… …The Encyclopedia of Geography
SIERRA LEONE, Republic of Sierra Leone, a state in West Africa, on the coast of the Atlantic Ocean. 72,300 km2 Population: 4.5 million (1993), people of the Temne, Mende, Limba, Fulbe, and other ethnic groups. Urban population 32% (1990)…. … Great Encyclopedic Dictionary.
Sierra Leone – Republic of Sierra Leone, a state in West Africa. Numerous articles of small stone (steatite) have been found in Sierra Leone, mainly human figurines of nomoli and pomdo in prayer pose, riders on horses and elephants … Art Encyclopedia
Sierra Leone, a small Western African state. In 1772, Britain declared that any runaway slave caught on its territory was automatically free. British philanthropists sent a ship to the cape of Sierra Leone, where Freetown was laid in 1788………World History
sierra leone – noun, number of synonyms: 1 – country (281) ASIS Dictionary of Synonyms. V. N. Trishin. 2013 … Dictionary of Synonyms
Sierra Leone – Area 72,000 sq km, population 3.7 million (1986). It is a predominantly agrarian country. Main food crop is rice. Development of cattle breeding is hindered by tsetse fly. Cattle breeding is developed mainly in northern part of the country. Ones breed cattle… World Sheep breeding
SIERRA LEONE is a republic in the Republic of Sierra Leone, a state in West Africa. It is bordered on the northwest, north, and northeast by Guinea, on the southeast by Liberia, and on the southwest and west by the Atlantic Ocean. Formerly a colony (coastal areas) and … … Collier’s Encyclopedia
Sierra Leone – (Sierra Leone) The Republic of Sierra Leone, a state in West Africa. Part of the British Commonwealth. On N. and S. The country is bordered on the east by the Republic of Guinea, on the south by Liberia, and on the west by the waters of the Atlantic …
Sierra Leone – The national emblem and flag of Sierra Leone. Sierra Leone, Republic of Sierra Leone. General S. Leone is a state in Western Africa on the coast of the Atlantic Ocean. It is a member of the Commonwealth (British … Encyclopedic Guide to Africa.
Sierra Leone – Republic of Sierra Leone, a state in West Africa, on the Atlantic coast. 72.3 thousand sq. km. Population 4.6 million (1996); the Temne, Mende, Limba, Fulbe, etc. nations. Urban population 36.2%…. … Encyclopaedic Dictionary