Sea of Galilee.
As an Epigraph: Moses led the Jews for 40 years through occupied Arab territory and, after finally getting lost, led them to the Sea of Galilee. Unknown Arab historian.
This lake, which in Hebrew is called the sea, has various names: Sea of Galilee, Sea of Galilee, Sea of Tiberias, but the Jews of Israel always called it, and still call it, Lake Kinneret.
The lake, like an archaic deity, has many names. And each of them reflects a particular stage of the long history of the peoples who inhabited its shores. Kinneret is one of the oldest bodies of water in the world. In ancient times the lake was considered a sea.
About 4,000 years ago on the shores of the lake on the hill Tell Kinorot was the Canaanite city of Kinar. It is believed that the city was named after a local deity who guarded the settlement. The name of Kinar’s wife was Kinneret, after whom the lake was named.
In addition, in those days, the word “kinor” was used to call a harp (although it is translated from modern Hebrew as a violin), which the lake does resemble in shape. So this is another, poetic, though unlikely, version of the origin of the ancient name of Kinneret.
Another name for the lake, Galilee, found in New Testament texts, marks its geographical location in Lower Galilee, whose mountains fringe the lake from the west. The biblical account of the “Walking on the Waters” is well known, when Jesus, who calmed the storm, walked across the surface of the Sea of Galilee.
To the northwest of the lake stretches the fertile valley of Genisaret with the village of the same name (which existed in the III millennium BC), so at one time there was a variant of the name “Sea of Genisaret. The lake is also called the Sea of Tiberias. This name comes from the name of one of the holy cities for the Jews, Tiberias. The Arabs, for example, say so – “bahr Tiberias,” i.e. “The Sea of Tiberias.”
The lake is the lowest of the freshwater lakes on earth. This natural reservoir supplies Israel with drinking water. To prevent the water from becoming brackish due to the many springs in the northern part of the lake, the salty springs are diverted through a special water pipeline to bypass the Kinneret, straight to the Dead Sea.
In order to transfer the waters of the Kinneret to the densely populated central part of the country and to its arid and desert south, in 1964 the lake was connected to the complex engineering system of the all-Israel water pipeline stretching for 130 km. The drinking water undergoes additional treatment. It passes through an open aqueduct to the sewage treatment plant, from where it is redistributed.
Kinneret is one of the most beautiful bodies of water in Israel, attracting tourists and also a place of fishing. The lake supplies the Israelis with about 2000 tons of fish annually. Tilapia fish, which is called “sea chicken” or “river chicken” here, is especially popular.
Canned and salted fish here – in the coastal villages, beloved by tourists. By the way, not only fish are caught in the Kineret, but also crayfish. To breed them, 15 years ago Australian crayfish were brought into the lake, and their rapid reproduction threatens to reduce the number of fish in Kineret.
One of the favorite cities of visitors and Israelis themselves is Tiberias, whose name is derived from the Roman emperor Tiberius. Along with Jerusalem, Hebron and Safed, Tiberias is one of Israel’s holy cities. Here are the tombs of people revered as saints.
There are pilgrimages to the tombs of the philosopher, scholar, and codifier of the Torah, Rambam (or Maimonides, Moses of Egypt, 1138-1204), and one of the great teachers of the law and founders of rabbinic (Orthodox) Judaism, Rabbi Akiba (50-135).
As in any city in Israel, Tiberias has many cultural monuments. The city has 17 hot springs up to + 63;C. On their basis, as well as the use of therapeutic mud (“piloma”) is developing balneological tourism.
In the evening because of the sharp drop in temperature there are strong storms. Oleanders bloom along the shores of the lake, and banana and date groves are inhabited by birds. Looking at this place today, it is hard to believe that once life for local Jews was a series of constant pogroms by Arabs. Incredibly, it is a fact that Nazism tried to take root in the Promised Land among the German Templars.
The deserted coast was being developed by building agricultural communes, kibbutzim. Fishing was dangerous because of the shelling from Syria. But that’s in the past. Today it is quiet and there are hundreds of thousands of tourists and pilgrims.
The name “Lake Tiberias” comes from the city of Tiberias (modern day Tiberias) on the western shore of the lake. The city was founded in the first century A.D. and was named after the Roman emperor Tiberius.
In translations of biblical texts the evangelical name “Sea of Galilee” is more commonly found The name is given after Galilee, the historical region of Israel, which the lake limits from the east.
The name “Lake of Genisaret” is given after the valley of Genisaret (Ginos;r) and the ancient city of Genisaret, which was located in the valley. The city existed before the conquest of Canaan by the Jews and flourished during the events described in the New Testament.
The name “Genisaret” is a Hellenized form of the Hebrew name “Kine;ret” (in the Synodal translation – Hinnereth, Nab.19:35 or Hinnaroth, Nab.19:35).
In the Old Testament Kinnereth is mentioned as “the sea of Kinnereth” (Num.34:11, etc.) or “the sea of Hinnereth” (Num.12:3, etc.), as the area through which the border of the land of Israel passes, and as “Hinnaroth” (Num.11:2). The fortified city of Hinnereth (Kinnerath) is mentioned as being in the land of the tribe of Naphtali (Nab. 19:35).
The lake is repeatedly mentioned in the Gospel as “the Sea of Galilee” (Mark 1:16, etc.), “the Sea of Tiberias” (John 21:1), “Lake of Gennesaret” (Luke 5:1), simply “lake” (Luke 8:22-23, Luke 8:33, etc.), or “sea” (Mark 4:35-41, Matt. 8:24, Matt. 4:18, etc.).
In the New Testament the Lake of Gennesaret is associated with many accounts of the earthly life of Jesus Christ. On the shores of the lake and in the coastal towns (especially Capernaum) Jesus spent most of his earthly ministry. It was on Lake Gennesaret that the apostles Peter and Andrew fished when they were called by Christ to the apostolic ministry.
There is, of course, no way for me to say anything original about this amazingly beautiful lake. Great sages and scholars, world-renowned poets and writers, and, after all, ordinary tour guides have long since done so.
Therefore, the following information in no way claims to be original. It can be seen as nothing more than the travel notes of an idle observer. And, in general, they are more intended for people who live far away from the Holy Land and have not yet been here.
The splendor of this marvelous lake cannot be described in words. But I will try. What strikes you immediately is an incredible metamorphosis of nature! Against the scorching desert landscape without a single shady corner, Lake Kinneret is literally stunning with its calm emerald smoothness. At the bottom of the lake is dark basalt sand, which is why, if you look at the lake from a distance, the water of Kinneret seems dark blue.
The picture is stunning: against the background of the Galilean rocks, scorched by the ruthless southern sun, suddenly, like a desert mirage, appear the green lace of coastal palms and bushes. Somehow magically tenderly, as in the old days on photographic paper, the smile of a lake of unprecedented beauty appears. All this magic in some incomprehensible way gives you peace and comfort and something more, which is impossible to describe with words.
Now here is a little geographical information. The lake stretches 21 km in length from north to south, and in the widest place from east to west – 12 km. The maximum depth is 45 meters. The mirror of the lake is 210 m below sea level. On the origin of the lake scientists and non-scientists are still arguing. The fact is that there are so many wonders associated with this unique body of water.
The lake is famous for its fish, which is caught on the industrial basis. Sometimes, however, there are messages terrifying the country, saying that piranhas been seen in the lake, brought from South America, or that a crocodile had crawled here, but then it turns out that some harmless fish were taken for piranhas, and someone made a joke about crocodiles.
Immediately adjacent to the lake is a stunning beauty of unearthly, more like the moon, the Jordan Valley landscape. In this place, one feels as if one is in outer space. True, in the airspace.
The fact is that because of the high Judean mountains the sunrise and sunset are not visible. In this regard, there is a physical sensation of complete detachment from the universe. At least from the outer, if I may say so, “beyond the mountainous” world.
It is literally a lunar landscape. A true cosmic stillness. Behind the windows of the bus one can see sandy craters, steep rocks of the most bizarre shapes, scatterings of huge rocks. It seems that time stood still here, and nature, frozen millions of years ago, came to us in its original form. There is a real feeling of immersion into eternity. It’s the perfect setting for a sci-fi movie.
South of Kinneret in a vast 400m deep well lies the Dead Sea, the world’s deadest salt-contaminated lake. The Kinneret is the main source of fresh water in Israel. However, today, when the capacity of desalination plants reached full capacity, the water from the Kinneret ceased to play the role of the primary source.
There is an opinion among scholars that the Kinneret and the Dead Sea were once one huge body of water. But there are also those who consider the Kinneret not as a remnant of a once-great body of water, but as a gigantic basin filled with the waters of 15 rivers, including the Jordan. The Jordan River alone brings an average of 500 million cubic meters of water annually to the Kinneret.
Here I would like to point out one natural phenomenon, unexplained until now. The fact is that the water of the Kineret, although considered fresh, tastes slightly salty. I have tasted it myself. Everything is clear – it is the influence of the waters of the salty thermal springs of Hammei Tiberias, Poria and Ein Sheva. The phenomenon is different – the waters of the Jordan, flowing out of the brackish Kinneret continue to be as fresh as when they flowed in.
By the way, Jewish sages have always compared the scattered people of Israel to the Jordan: just as the waters of the river remain fresh as they flow through the brackish lake, so the Jewish people, having been in the Diaspora among other peoples for thousands of years, have not dissolved into them.
On the western shore of the lake lies the city of Tiberias, one of the four holy cities for Jews (along with Jerusalem, Hebron, and Safed). Tiberias is the holy city of Israel, a Jewish pilgrimage site. It was built in 18 AD by King Herod Antipas.
It has preserved many Roman buildings, remaining after the stay of the Romans in this land. Tiberias is a very beautiful city with many attractions, so it is one of the most famous resorts in Israel.
Along the entire coast of the Kinneret are “wild” and paid (most of them) beaches, all kinds of recreational facilities. On the shores of the lake are hot springs, rich in salts and sulfur. Many of them are used for medicinal purposes.
The shore of the lake is associated with many episodes from the life of Jesus Christ. It was on the shores of the Sea of Galilee almost the entire Gospel story took place. This is where Christ began his sermons, where he found many of his disciples and worked miracles. It was here that the apostles were called and the famous Sermon on the Mount was preached.
Jesus performed many miracles in this region: he healed cripples, fed the hungry with five loaves of bread, tamed a storm, and talked with his Father in heaven. And after his resurrection he appeared to his disciples on Lake Galilee. This is why this place is extremely popular among Christian pilgrims.
And for Jews, it is important that on its shores is Tiberias, the birthplace of the Talmud. On the northern shore of Lake Tiberias lies Capernaum (Kfar Nahum), where it is believed Jesus Christ lived and preached, and where today excavations are being conducted and the Franciscan church and monastery on the Mount of the Sermon on the Mount (Beatitudes) rise up.
At the outlet of the Jordan River from Lake Tiberias is the Yardenite, which, according to Christian tradition, is where Jesus was baptized. The historic area of Ginosar has been famous since antiquity for its fruit, distinguished by its size and special sweetness. On the east bank are the ruins of the monastery of Kursi, the site of the Gospel miracle of casting out demons into a herd of pigs.
One and a half kilometers south of Lake Kinneret, on the banks of the Jordan River, is the first Jewish kibbutz in Palestine, Dganiya (cornflower). The kibbutz was founded in 1909 by a group of Halutzim from the Ukraine. It is now a thriving kibbutz. See http://www.proza.ru/2011/08/17/1088 At the gates of the kibbutz stands a small Syrian tank, hit by kibbutzniks during the War of Independence.
It is 13 km. From Dganiya, on the banks of the River Kinneret, is Kibbutz Ein Gev. Until the Six Day War, it was on the border with Syria. This kibbutz is known not only for its intensive and productive agriculture, but also for its music festivals that take place every year during Passover week. They feature some of Israel’s best musicians and artists from abroad. The concerts take place in a specially built open-air amphitheater.
In addition, there are many archaeological sites not far from the Kinneret: the ancient Roman city of Beit Shean, the antiquities of Tiberias, Gamla in the Golan Heights, the places where, according to the New Testament, Jesus performed his miracles, where the tombs of the forefathers and the great rabbis are located. At the bottom of the lake near the Hotel Beth-Yerah, archaeologists have discovered a number of monuments that are believed to have been ceremonial funeral structures.
At the confluence of the Jordan into Lake Tiberias is the Parc a Yarden (Jordan Park, Jordan Park), an amusement park donated by the French government to Israel.
I have repeatedly heard and read about some special feeling of happiness that grips a traveler at Lake Kinneret. The well-known London journalist and traveler Henry W. Morton once wrote: “I remember waking up the first morning I looked out over the Lake of Galilee, and I distinctly felt an inexpressible peace and such a detachment from the world, that I could imagine myself as Adam gazing in wonder at the Garden of Eden.
On several occasions I woke up in hotels in Tiberias, and even gazed out at the bright blue mirror-like waters of the Kinneret. True, I never felt like Adam, but I must have felt something similar to that of peace of mind and grace.
One may or may not believe in the biblical stories at Lake Kinneret told in the New Testament. However, if these things really once happened, they must have happened here. I confirm that this place was not chosen by chance at all.
Lev Samuilovich! I’m very glad we met again! I had a difficult autumn and didn’t visit Prose – I had no time and diseases overcame me. And now a new meeting! I had an unspeakable pleasure from “The Sea of Gallileo”, about which you wrote so interestingly and lovingly! Got a lot of new information and was shocked by your artistic description of this unique body of water. Downloaded it to my e-book. Definitely will return to this description! Lake Kineret is difficult to compare with lakes in Russia – it has its own unique geosystem. And of course we all associate the Sea of Galilee with Christianity, with the life of Jesus, which you also write about. By the way, in the book of Renan “The Life of Jesus” the events taking place in this part of Galilee are very poetically and with great love, and my knowledge of the Lake of Galilee was based on this book and the New Testament. Thank you very much again Sincerely Vadim.
Yes, by the way, your mention of the salinity of the lake and the fact that the Jordan flows in fresh and comes out fresh surprised me – I did not know. And the original and true comparison about the preservation of Jewish identity, despite the mixing and dispersal of Jews around the world!
Thank you, Vadim, for such an enthusiastic response. Stay healthy and live long. Sincerely
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XX. Sea of Galilee.
From Tabor to Tiberias. – Nomadic Bedouins. – The grim view of the stalemate. – The biblical significance of land and water. – Lake Tiberias, the cradle of Christianity. -Greek monastery. – A fishing boat. – Christ’s travels to the lake. – The temple is not made. – Reading the Gospel. – Galilean fishermen. – Connection of the churches.
From Tabor to Tiberias about twenty versts. The road winds northeast between the Galilean mountains. Yesterday a large caravan of pilgrims passed through here, and we decided to catch up with it on the shore of Lake Tiberias in order to make our way further to Cana and Nazareth in the crowd of Russian pilgrims.
Often we came across fields of grain, almost ready for harvest. And this in the twenties of March! There were very few people we encountered. When we encountered a native peasant fellah, we hastened to greet him with a well-earned “marhaba!” – hello! There were few villages along the way. In some places we came across Bedouin camps.
If there was one thing I dreamed of, it was the tents of nomadic Arabs. From an early age, I had a vivid picture of the nomadic life of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob from the brightly colored pictures of biblical history. Green pastures, azure skies, bright sunshine, a variety of small and large cattle, hospitable tents, cheerful children, and, finally, the nomads themselves, affectionate, cordially inviting every traveler to visit. They wear bright colorful clothes, majestic gait, and majestic speeches. In fact, far from it! Long black tents stand upon the bare ground, with two or three fractured covers. Something harsh reeks from the dark holey felts. No cattle are seen nearby. Children are kept at a distance and looking sideways. Adults are wrapped in dark-colored clothing. Something gloomy, sullen seemed to me about the scene of the Bedouin camp. And that may only be because of the religious divide between us.
Perhaps the Bedouins with their black tents would have made me feel better if they had been Christians and had offered their hospitality with the cordiality of Abraham; but even my companion in Bedouin garb was wary of the tents of Abraham’s descendants.
– God knows them,” he remarked, “they may be robbers. Well, you know how the Bedouins are said to be in the country.
There was only one place where we dared to go near a well where women and children were gathered. They were very frightened of us at first, but our wigs made them come a little nearer to us.
I walked most of the way with our “Bedouin. We were both eager to see Lake Tiberias, where the gospel teaching of Jesus Christ was first heard. The history of Old Testament Israel took place overland: Canaan, Chaldea, Egypt, and the Sinai Desert were the countries of biblical events. Even if the Jews had to cross the Red Sea and the Jordan River, they marvelously made their way “as if on dry land. The Lord led them “through a great and terrible wilderness, where serpents, basilisks, scorpions and dry places are without water” (Deuteronomy 8:15). It was in this dry, waterless wilderness that the Lord appeared to Israel and made His covenant with them. But now the time of the New Covenant has come, and the Lord reveals Himself at the Jordan and at the Sea of Galilee. Through the water of baptism they began to enter into the New Covenant. From the boat on Lake Tiberias the Gospel was heard.
So Christianity was born on the water. And I now longed to see the shores of the Sea of Galilee as the cradle of Christianity. We were far ahead of our companions, even though they were riding on donkeys. The road led to a pass, from which the descent to the lake began. It opened to us at once in its full width, but its ends were lost in the distance behind the mountains.
I stopped in awe and froze in consciousness of the important moment. Probably, I thought, Christ, too, on his way to Tiberias, had stood on this pass more than once before the lake.
The “Bedouin” expressed his enthusiasm more noisily and strongly. He raised his hands to heaven and said “Our Father” in Greek in a loud voice; I, then, kept reciting prayers in Slavonic until the rest of our companions caught up with us. Now it was not much further to Tiberias: we had to descend from the mountain to the coastal plain and go in from the south side of the city. The beautiful lake among the verdant shores was a source of sincere delight to my entire company. There was an amazing tranquility here. From a distance there was not the slightest ripple on the surface of the water. There was not a single sail or moving point. There was not a single cloud in the sky either. Absolute silence! Even the continually pouring hot rays of the high sun were as if frozen in this bright picture.
– What silence! What peace! – The more passionate poet ceaselessly exclaimed.
As we approached Tiberias, or Tabaria, as this only city on the shores of the lake is now called, we began to meet our compatriots. We were very glad to have caught up with the caravan of pilgrims, and we agreed to set out with them tomorrow morning. At the entrance to the town, there was commerce: among other things, local fishermen were selling the fish they had just caught. Nothing that reminded me of the Gospel made me so happy in Palestine, neither the piles of fruit, nor the figs, nor the olive trees, nor the palm vines, as this silvery fish in the hands of the fishermen on the shores of Lake Tiberias.
– Let’s go now! Hear me,” I say to my companions, “now
We will hire a boat and go to the shores of Gennesaret.
The narrow and dirty streets of Tiberias, with frequent turns to the right and to the left, soon led us to the Greek monastery. The courtyard and stairs of the two-story building were incredibly dirty. There were crowds of people everywhere. All the rooms were occupied by pilgrims. I had a letter of introduction to the local Archimandrite Abraham, but even he was powerless to give us any accommodation in such a small space. I asked him to hire a boat for us, and I went with a “Bedouin” to see how such a mass of pilgrims was sheltered here. It is said that there were as many as a thousand of both sexes in the caravan. The women separately occupied two or three rooms on the upper floor. Some people were housed downstairs in sheds on the ground. There was a church in one of these barns, and it, too, was quite crowded. It was, I think, the meanest church I had ever seen in Palestine. Donkeys and mules were crowding and shouting in the courtyard. All in all, it was a terrible mess. In the corridor we met a peasant worshiper with a pot of hot soup made from local fresh fish.
– Sell us a bowl of soup, my dear fellow, at least! – We ask him.
– Please, eat as much as you like: I will brew some more for you,” he kindly offers.
At that moment we did not value food in general as much as we did the knowledge that we were eating fish, which had once been fished by Christ himself and his apostles.
Soon the owner of the boat came and negotiated a price with us Only the “Bedouin” and the Old Believer merchant agreed to go now. The others referred to fatigue and the late hour. It was, however, the fourth hour of the day. Through the Greek monk we asked the boatman to take us to Tell Hum on the north shore of the lake, where we intended to disembark for half an hour, and then back to Tiberias.
On the way to the lake we bought bread and olives. There were no marinas. The shore was sloping and the ships were anchored away from it. We were carried to the boat by fishermen on their backs.
An unspeakable delight gripped us as we sat down on the deck stern. It is easy to believe that even at the time of Christ the Savior there were boats of the same type as ours on this lake. She was about four fathoms long. Besides the covered stern and bow, the boat had two benches for the rowers. A small mast was tilted forward, and at its end was kept by a long batten with one triangular sail in the middle. The lower end of the lath was fastened at the bow. We had four local fishermen with us.
It was quiet, and the fishermen, having raised the anchor, sat in the oars. They did not speak Russian and we could not ask them about it. But we would have liked to learn a lot from the Galilean fishermen themselves!
From Tiberias to Tell Hum in a straight line is considered ten versts. Actually the whole lake is about twenty versts in length, and half of that in breadth, against Magdala, now the village of El Majdel. The Gospel speaks of Christ’s travels in the northern half of the lake. The famous taming of the storm happened in the northeastern part, on the road from Capernaum to the country of the Gergesenes, whence Christ, after healing a demoniac, immediately set out back to his city of Capernaum. The miraculous walking on the waters took place on the way to the land of Gennesaret, in Bethsaida, or Capernaum. After feeding the people with seven loaves, Christ arrived by boat at the borders of Magdala (Dalmanuf) and from there, refusing to give the Pharisees a “sign,” sailed probably to Bethsaida Juliad. This last journey of the divine teacher was accompanied by his talk of abstaining from the leaven of the Pharisees. These are all the major journeys mentioned in the Gospel. It is understandable that a Christian is drawn to the northern waters of Lake Tiberias, where we also sailed quietly, enjoying the beautiful view of the mountainous shores that extended into the distance.
Here I rested with my soul. Nothing disturbed us in those joyful moments. There was no doubt in our minds that we were sailing in the waters that had also borne Christ and his apostles. Here no one was raping our conscience, no one was selling the grace of God for money, no one was imposing pious devotions on us. Here everything was free, open, and natural. Here on the lake, on the green shores, under the vault of the blue sky, there was a nationwide temple, not made by hand, in which, with pure faith, it was easy to pray to God.
We were farther and farther away from the western shore, so that when we reached the village of El-Medjdel (the ancient Magdala), we were three versts from it. Here we remembered our olives and shared them with our fishermen in a friendly manner. Our drink was the clear, soft water of the lake. The mug changed hands incessantly. We all wanted to taste more of the sacred waters of the cradle of Christianity.
The closer we got to the northern shores, the more reverent we became of the unforgettable places.
– Here, too, Christ revealed Himself to the people,” the “Bedouin” remarked to us when we were in front of the bright green plain of Gennesaret. He pulled out a small book, carefully wrapped in a dark handkerchief. It was a fine copy of the New Testament in Greek. “The Bedouin” revealed to us all the passages of the Gospel that speak of Jesus Christ’s sojourn on the lake, and translated them into Russian. The Old Believer listened to the reading with great attention and was very pleased that the Slavonic text of the Gospel, known to him and accepted in Russia, did not differ from the Greek. Maybe, for the first time he saw that the word Jesus also in Greek begins with a decimal and with an octal “I” (Ιη).
The boatmen were talking to each other all the time they were rowing, in a language we didn’t understand, and of course they were completely indifferent to our cheering.
All the time we admired them as descendants of the famous fishermen who had caught the whole world of men with their sermon. We christened the older one Simon Peter, and the younger one John. To complete the picture, the other two were named James and Andrew. But. ironically! Here, where Christianity was born, the children of its founders know neither Christ as Savior nor the Gospel. They are Muslims.
– Here we have just read how Christ sailed in a boat with his disciples.
The “Bedouin” appealed to the Old Believer. – Did it ever occur to you that the rook at that moment represented a single conciliar apostolic church? Now it is no more: the church is split in two, just as you and I are in this boat. Both we Nikonians and you Old Believers call yourselves Christians, but there is no love of Christ between us.
The Old Believer did not like this conversation and wanted to stop it, but the “Bedouin” hurried to calm the merchant:
– I do not speak in condemnation to you and I do not mean to consider, which church is more
right. The “division” has been going on since Adam: it is the way of mankind. Cain and Abel, Ishmael and Isaac, Esau and Jacob, the kingdom of Judah and Israel, the Eastern Church and the Western Church – it is the law of mankind to split into two halves. But Christ foretold that He would unite the two churches, and there would be one flock and one shepherd.
– Yes, it is true,” I remarked on my part, “there were two boats at work on the lake, Peter’s and
John’s. But, when Christ entered one of them and produced a miraculous catch of fish, the two boats joined together.
– God willing! God willing! – We sincerely wished all the churches joined together.
Source: Pilgrimage to Palestine to the Holy Sepulchre : Essays on a Journey to Constantinople, Asia Minor, Syria, Palestine, Egypt and Greece / I.P. Yuvachev. – Published by the Alexander Nevsky Soberness Society at the Resurrection Church “Society for the Promotion of Religious and Moral Enlightenment in the Spirit of the Orthodox Church”. – St. Petersburg: Type. The St. Petersburg Acc. Society of Printing Works “Slovo”, 1904. – XVI, 365,  p., 126 ill.