Nuremberg, a city in Bavaria, Germany

Nuremberg

Nuremberg is the only major city in Germany that has largely managed to preserve its medieval features to this day. It is called the most German city, the embodiment of the spirit of the country. It is the second largest city in Bavaria. The river Pegnitz crosses its center from east to west.

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History

The village of Norimberg is first mentioned in a document from 1050. In the mid-11th century, Emperor Henry III built a fortress on a high hill above the Pegnitz River. Its construction was finished under the reign of Emperor Frederick I Barbarossa (approx. 1125-1190) . According to one of the versions, where the Imperial Castle (Kaizerburg) now stands, there used to be the Roman fortification of Neronberg, named after the Emperor Nero. In 1219 Emperor Frederick II declared Nuremberg a free imperial city. Later Ludwig IV of Bavaria Wittelsbach (1282-1347) established a residence in the fortress. In the millennial history of Nuremberg there were more than 300 imperial visits.

In 1356 Emperor Charles IV laid down the procedure for the election of the emperor by the seven electors in the Golden Bull. After his coronation, the new emperor had to assemble his first Reichstag in Nuremberg. Thus the city acquired the status of “first among equals”. In 1423 Emperor Sigismund gave the coronation jewels and the city became “the treasury of the Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation”.

Nuremberg was among the first German cities to join the Reformation in 1525. In 1806 it was incorporated into the Kingdom of Bavaria.

The first pocket watch, thimble, clarinet, and lathe appeared here. As early as 1659 the factory production of pencils began.

In Nuremberg the astronomer and mathematician Regiomontan founded in 1471 one of the first astronomical observatories in Europe. It was here, in 1525, that Copernicus’ work “On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres” was published. Sculptors A. Kraft, P. Fischer and his sons, Veit Stos, inventor of pocket watch P. Henlein, geographer M. Bechheim lived and worked in this city. The philosopher G. W. F. Hegel served for eight years as director of the gymnasium in Nuremberg.

In 1662 the first German Academy of Arts was founded there, which still exists today.

With the change of world trade routes after the discovery of America and after the devastating Thirty Years’ War the city fell into decline.

In 1835 the first railroad in the country was built between Nuremberg and Fürth. From that time on the city began to develop into a modern industrial center.

The Nuremberg Laws of 1935 provided the “legal” basis for the persecution and extermination of Jews in the Third Reich. The pogrom newspaper Der Stuermer was published here.

During World War II, up to 90% of the city’s buildings were destroyed.

Nuremberg is also famous for its peaceful nature. At the beginning of the 20th century the city had 243 toy factories! In the postwar years there was regularly held an international, the world’s largest toy fair.

Nuremberg sights

The old city with its narrow, crooked streets is surrounded by a 5 km-long fortress wall (1452) with numerous gates and round, powerful towers. These include the New Gate, the Spittlertor, the Laufertor, the Maxtor and the massive gate tower of the Konigstorturm (Royal Gate).

Have survived residential buildings XV-XVII centuries. with their characteristic high pointed pediments and an abundance of ornaments.

The best way to get around the Old Town is on foot. Let’s cross it diagonally from southeast to northwest.

Next to the Central Station is the Royal Gates (Konigstor), which can be reached by underground passage. Near it is arranged for tourists craftsmen town Nuremberg (Handwerkerhof “Nurnberg”) . Surrounded by ancient walls and towers are small half-timbered houses, where visitors acquainted with their craft masters to make pottery, handbags, dolls, blacksmiths, engravers of coins, glassblowers and bakers, bake the famous gingerbread “Lebkuchen.

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The pedestrianized Royal Street (Konigstrasse) leads to Lorenzer Platz . Nearby on Hallplatz 2, one can admire the facade of the solid building of the Custom House (Mauthalle, architect G. Beheim Senior, 1498-1502) with the windows on the peaked roof.

The Lorenz Square is dominated by the largest St. Lawrence Church in Nuremberg (St. Lorenz-Kirche, Late Gothic, 1270-1477; Mon-Sat 9:00-17:00, Sun 13:00-16:00) . A beautiful rose window with a diameter of almost 9 m adorns the church. During the Second World War, the church was destroyed; it was restored to its original form in 1952. Among them: the monstrance by A. Kraft and the Annunciation by F. Stoss, an oval linden composition with 55 medallions depicting episodes from the life of Christ.

Opposite the church is the Nassauer Haus (13th century), the oldest noble house in Nuremberg. It became famous in 1431, when Emperor Sigismund left one of his crowns to the owner, Ulrich Ortlieb, as a reward for 1,500 guilders. In honor of this, the facade of the building is decorated with the imperial coat of arms.

On Lorenz Square the Fountain of the Virtues (Tugendbunnen, B. Wurzelbauer, 1589) also attracts attention. It is a jewel of the late German Renaissance. Six Virtues in the form of female figures surround the image of Justice.

The Museumsbrucke (Museumsbrucke) across the Pegnitz leads to the Main Market Square (Hauptmarktplatz) .

The bridge offers the best view of the Heilig-Geist-Spital, which is located on the island. Its construction began about 1331. In the Middle Ages it was the imperial treasury. The hospital has three fine inner courtyards, the largest of which has a Crucifix by A. Kraft. It also houses a Franconian-style restaurant.

To the right of the bridge, by the river, there is a monument to Hans-Sachs (1494-1576) – a folk poet and Meistersinger. Since 1874 the square on which it stands, bears his name – Hans-Sachs-Platz. Hans Sachs was born, lived and worked in Nuremberg.

The Main Market Square is more than six centuries old. During the reign of Frederick Barbarossa, Jews were allowed to settle there by the moor. In 1349, when plague was raging in the city, they were blamed for the plague. About 600 people were burned here on St. Nicholas Day.

On the site of the demolished synagogue, the Church of Our Lady (Frauenkirche, 1352-1361) was soon built with beautiful stained glass windows. In 1509 a clock was installed in its belfry, where every afternoon a puppet show called The Running of the Men attracts the attention of those gathered on the square, reminding them of the Golden Bull that legitimized the election of the emperor as electors. The seven electors in red coats circle the seated emperor Charles IV three times as he swings his sceptre.

In the Gothic Old Town Hall (14th century, April – October, morning 10 a.m. – 4:30 p.m., November – March, morning 10 a.m. – 4:30 p.m., during the Christmas Fair daily 10 a.m. – 4:30 p.m.) the jeweled Imperial Crown is exposed in a small exhibition room and the prison (Lochgefangnisse) can be visited in the cellars.

Next to the town hall is the fountain “The Man with the Goose”, especially beautiful with night illumination.

On the square there is also a fountain-well (Schoner Brunnen, 1385-1396) . It is decorated with a Gothic stone pyramid, 19 m high, with 40 figures in four tiers, depicting kings, knights and fantastic animals. The city’s first public artesian well was here. The openwork fence has two special rings – a gold (or rather, brass) ring and an iron ring. According to legend, a lovesick apprentice made them, eager to prove to his teacher that he was worthy of his daughter’s hand. The rings are one-piece, and it is not clear how the young craftsman managed to mount them on the fence so that they rotate freely. Some people are sure that spinning a gold ring is good luck.

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Not far from the square is the church of St. Sebald (St. Sebaldus-Kirche, late Gothic, ca. 1240-1273) . In its interior there are preserved works by A. Kraft and F. Stos.

South of the church, just before reaching the River Pegnitz, the old wine storehouse (Weinstadel, 1446-1448) is of interest. This 58 m long house is one of the biggest half-timbered houses in Germany. It was originally a hospice for lepers. They were allowed to enter the city for three days during the Holy Week, after which they were kicked out again. Today it’s a student hostel.

We go upstairs to the half-timbered house of Albrecht Dürer (Albrecht-Durer-Strasse, 39, Thu 10.00-17.00, Thu 10.00-20.00, July-September, and on the Christmas market Fri 10.00-17.00). The famous artist lived there from 1509 to 1528. The furnishings of those years have been carefully recreated, although the only original pieces on display are a table and an engraving press. The story of Dürer is narrated by an actress-guide in the dress of that time, playing the role of the artist’s wife, Agnes.

The Kaiser-burg, one of the most interesting and largest castles in Germany (over 200 meters long and 50 meters wide), is the landmark of old Nuremberg. It was built on the red sandstone Castle Rock (Burgfelsen). The Emperor’s Castle (Kaiserburg, XII-XVI centuries; April-September 9 a.m.-6 p.m., October-March 10 a.m.-4 p.m.) is located on the western side of the rock, but its name extends to the entire castle. In its territory there are the most powerful buildings of the fortress: the Tower of the Gentiles (Heidenturm) and the Round Tower (Sinwellturm), the palace with state rooms and living quarters (Kemenate) and the Imperial Chapel (Kaiser-kapelle) . In the state rooms and living quarters of the castle there is almost no furniture and kitchenware. The apartments were borrowed from the rich citizens of the town before the Emperor’s visit and returned after his departure. The black eagles on the ceiling of the reception room are a reminder that these rooms were intended for the supreme person of the empire and his entourage.

In the center of the courtyard is the Well House, in it since the XII century, the water does not dry up, it rises from a depth of 47 m. For tourists there is a show with the descent of burning candles and a mirror. adjacent to the Imperial Castle Castle Castle Park.

The eastern part of the mountain takes Burggraf Castle (Burggrafen-burg, XI century) . It consists of the oldest buildings of the fortress. These are the pentagonal tower (Funfeckturm), the Walburgiskapelle and the Luginsland watchtower. The Pentagonal Tower is adjoined by the former Count’s Stables, which were later converted into a granary. In the 12th century the Burggrave’s Castle belonged to the Hohenzollerns. They did not get on with the townsfolk, who drove members of the powerful clan out in the mid-13th century. Since 1983 it has been occupied by a youth hostel.

From the castle observation deck on the south side an impressive panorama of the central part of Nuremberg opens up.

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A special place in the city is the Palace of Justice (west of the Old Town, Justizpalast, Further Strasse, 110. You can get into the hall with a guided tour, which is held on weekends) . The international tribunal for the most important Nazi war criminals was held here in hall 600 from 1945 to 1946. The Nuremberg Trials were the ignominious end of National Socialism, Hitler’s party and the Third Reich.

Museums

Documentary Center “Blinding and Violence” (Dokumentationszentrum: Faszination und Gewalt)

Located in the southeast of Nuremberg next to the Luitpoldhain Park and Zeppelinfeld (Zeppelinfeld, 1935-1937) . On Hitler’s orders, Nuremberg was to be “for all time the site of the Party congresses”. In 1938, 1.6 million people gathered here for the congress of the NSDAP.

The center is located in the Palace of Congresses (Kongresshalle), which was not built under Hitler and was modeled on the Roman Coliseum. It was intended to hold 50,000 people. Today there is an impressive exhibition about the origins, history, congresses, crimes and the end of National Socialism.

Bayernstrasse, 110. Open: Mon-Fri 9 am – 6 pm, Sat 10 am – 6 pm.

German National Museum (Germanisches Nationalmuseum)

German National Museum was founded in 1852 “to save the cultural heritage of Germany”. The largest historical museum of the country. During the war almost all of its priceless treasures were saved. Currently, its holdings include 1.2 million items. In the halls one can see about 20,000 exhibits. There are a lot of monuments of early history and works of folk craftsmen. Among the treasures of the museum are: the first globe in the world, created by Martin Beheim in 1492, on which there is no America, not yet discovered by Columbus, a golden gospel from Echternach (Luxembourg), the oldest spring-operated Burgundian clocks and the first astronomical instruments. In the musical instruments department – the world’s largest collection of pianos. There are canvases by famous artists: Rembrandt, Lucas Cranach the Elder, Dürer, sculptures by Riemenschneider and Stoss.

Very interesting is the department of toys with doll’s houses. On display, for example, is a cross-section of a three-storey house, built four centuries ago: at the bottom is the wine cellar, the stable, a collection of household utensils, above – the servants’ quarters, the kitchen, the dining room, the burghers’ rooms, all with the finest details of furnishings.

The ruins of the Carthusian abbey were put under the roof of the museum when the building was completed after the war.

Open: Mon-Fri 10 a.m. to 6 p.m., Wed 10 a.m. to 9 p.m., Aug 10 a.m. to 9 p.m., Aug 1 Kartausergasse. Free admission.

Communication Museum (Museum fur Kommunikation) and German Railway Museum (DB Museum, opened in 1899)

These two museums are located in one building. Particular attention is paid to telephone and postal services and the history of rail transport.

A great place for the curious! Where else can you see the postal carriages and carriages, the first postage stamps? Or work on a Morse machine or a telephone switchboard?

Only here you can see a real steam engine, which ran on rails two centuries ago, or luxurious train carriages of Bavarian King Ludwig II.

Kids enjoy setting the toy locomotive in motion by simply pushing a button. Schoolchildren – and adults, too – can try their hand at driving. They take in their hands the handles of the movement and brakes – and off they go! Rushes toward the web of tracks and overhead wires, fast approaching train station platforms, flashing traffic lights. The effect of movement is created by the simulator, but all sensations, as well as the control equipment, are real.

It is impossible to pass by the model of the railroads: 0.5 kilometers of tracks, locomotive depot, marshalling yard, and various trains – fast, local, and freight. A real dispatcher with authentic equipment forms trains and activates dozens of toy locomotives. The train can be seen on Lessingstrasse, 6.

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Open: Fri-Fri 9.00-17.00, Sat, Sat 10.00-18.00.

This museum is located in the heart of St. Petersen, where you can visit every year.

It is too cold in winter, so the best time to visit is from June to September.

Things to see and try

  • Nuremberg Palace of Justice on Furterstrasse. After World War II, Nazi criminals were tried here.
  • The local delicacy, lebkuchen (gingerbread), is best purchased at small bakeries. Choose the best variety, jelisenlebkuchen.
  • Visit the house of Albrecht Dürer, where the great master lived and worked (from 1509 to 1528).
  • If you make a wish, touch the golden ring of the Schoner Brunnen fountain three times and your wish will come true!
  • The Nazis held their rallies and demonstrations in the city’s central square.

Interesting fact

The “iron maiden” (a metallic cabinet with spikes), a frightening medieval torture device, was in reality nothing more than a hoax devised by the Nuremberg people in 1793.

City of Nuremberg (Bavaria, Germany) – reviews

Review of the City of Nuremberg (Germany, Bavaria)

Nuremberg is the second largest city in Bavaria and has perfectly preserved its ancient architectural monuments. Or rather restored, which is no less admiration and respect. In 1945 the ancient city was destroyed by bombing by 90%. In 20 years.

A beautiful city, which surely everyone has heard of.

Not familiar with the modern history course taught in our schools, but in my childhood/boyhood days, everyone knew about Nuremberg. And not so much about the city as about the trial that ended the war crimes of the German Nazis afterwards.

a city that left a strange impression

Good day ! We went to Nuremberg as a part of a tour from Mariánské Lázně. In Mariánské Lázně (Czech Republic) we vacationed with my husband in 2016. When you hear about the city of Nuremberg, what associations you have.

My opinion of the city has changed dramatically

I do not like Germany. Although I’ve only visited one city, Berlin. But I didn’t like it the first time, and there’s nothing I can do about it. That’s why I didn’t expect much from Nuremberg.

The city of my favorite artist

For the fourth day I read the reviews about Munich and I like them very much. I was in Bavaria in 2011, wrote about some places of my trip, but I had no energy to start with the major cities.

From Dürer to the Nutcracker.

Listening to the magical music of Tchaikovsky’s ballet The Nutcracker, no one, of course, goes into such detail as the birthplace of the “protagonist. But if we turn to the “original source”, i.e. to Hoffmann’s fairy tale of the same name, then the prince, bewitched by Queen Myshilde.

Could it be that in this fairy tale city there was a serious process going on.

Good day my friends and readers of the review. In this review, I want to tell you about the city that the majority of us in Russia knows about the Nuremberg Trials. By the way, I was the same way before I visited it. Yes.

Durer’s art, the work of “The Nutcracker and the Mouse King”, the war and post-war period – this is the history of Nuremberg.

Toys, gingerbread, Bavarian sausages, and interesting sights – all this is a city with almost a thousand years of history Nuremberg. The city, located in the southeast of Germany in the federal state of Bavaria, is one of the most economically developed in Germany. A visit to.

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I fell in love with it at first sight !

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Rabbits and bunnies in different variations

Greetings to all the guests of my page! I remembered my recent trip to Nuremberg, a city in Germany in northern Bavaria, though I was passing through there, one day, but to walk and…

Nuremberg.Rocky Mountain.Bavaria.

I would like to show you a historical place in the city of Nuremberg. I don’t know about you, but I was interested to visit this place. It’s the Luitpold Arena. The square where the torchlight processions were held during the Nazi Germany. Now.

Beautiful half-timbered city

Beautiful, half-timbered streets, tasty beer, churches, fountains, Albrecht Dürer museum, good public transportation

Nuremberg is the second largest city in Bavaria after Munich . The German capital of Christmas, the city of half-timbered houses, the city of the artist we all know. I went here for a day on a Bavarian ticket, and in 5 hours I had time to take a good look around.

Here is the spirit of the real Germany! Nuremberg delights and amazes!

Hello all! Friends, I continue to share with you my impressions about Germany. When we were thinking about the route of our trip to Germany, I confess, I was against visiting Nuremberg and, as it turned out later, very wrongly. Just in.

The most German of all German cities.

Before, when I heard of a city like Nuremberg, I only thought of the Nuremberg Trials. And so it turned out that the city was associated only with war and court cases. Not the most pleasant associations, so there was not much desire to see it.

I like the spirit of antiquity. The city that did not become the Nazi Empire.

Ancient city, Fortress, old town, a lot of beautiful houses of old architecture. Entrance to churches is free.

We drove into town at night, I was dozing and opened my eyes as we passed the entrance to town, a huge Nuremberg sign above my head. There was no excitement whatsoever. And when we went to look.

It’s a beautiful city.

More than once I have been to this beautiful Bavarian (and also Franconian) city. On one visit, during a two-week tour of cities in southern and eastern Germany, I toured the city of Nuremberg. The time was pre-digital, so.

A mysterious European city. or a refugee camp?

Lots of migrants, not cheap, local cuisine poorly and poorly represented, historic city center very small

I found inspiration to tell you about a trip to Nuremberg in March 2018. My trip was “on business” and there was no time for museums, but I walked around the city and was amazed at my first visit to Germany.

Beautiful city.

Visited the city of Nünberg Germany in 2017. I liked the city very much, the streets and yards are very clean and cozy. Nünberg itself is a small town, but very beautiful and very cozy. It is as if from.

An interesting and beautiful town

Repeatedly visited this German town in Bavaria. It is a very beautiful old town, which, unfortunately, is largely rebuilt after the war. There are few authentic historical buildings left in it. Nevertheless, even in such a.

City of Empires, bay windows and fountains, and Nuremberg gingerbread.

I began my acquaintance with Nuremberg with Nuremberg Castle, which is the hallmark of this city. In the Middle Ages, the lands of Germany were part of the Holy Roman Empire of the German nation. And this castle was one of the residences.

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