Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus
The Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus (TRNC) (Turkish – Kuzey Kıbrıs Türk Cumhuriyeti (KKTC) ) – A self-proclaimed state, occupying the northern third of the island of Cyprus. From 1975 to 1983 the territory was called the Turkish Federative State of Northern Cyprus.
Turkey is the only country that has recognised North Cyprus. Under international law, the Republic of Cyprus retains sovereignty over all the territory that was part of it prior to 1974. This is the view of all other states and the UN.
The population of Northern Cyprus is about 200 thousand people, living on an area of 3 355 sq. km. (including the small Turkish town of Erenköy). The vast majority of the population are ethnic Turks, representing two communities: local Anatolian Turks, immigrants from Turkey. There is also a small proportion living in their Nicosia (Tur. Lefkoşa , Greek Λευκωσία ), the capital of the Republic of Cyprus.
Most of the Greek residents of Northern Cyprus were forced to flee to the south as a result of the events of 1974; at the same time many Turkish Cypriots emigrated from the country, who now reside mostly in Western Europe, while their homes and property went to immigrants from Turkey.
The TRNC is separated from the rest of Cyprus by a buffer zone. The line dividing the island into two sectors (the so-called Green Line) is guarded by a contingent of
History of the Republic of Cyprus and the TRNC
Founding President of the TRNC 1960 – Establishment of the Republic of Cyprus – The Republic of Cyprus was established after Cyprus was granted independence from Britain. The Greek and Turkish communities were given equal opportunity to participate in the governance of the new state. They were allocated seats in the government and civil institutions. The existence of the new state was guaranteed by the 1960 Treaty of Guarantee by Great Britain, Greece and Turkey.
1974 – coup in Greece and Turkish invasion – In July 1974, with the support of the Greek military junta, the island went from federation to independence – In 1975 the Turkish Federal State of Northern Cyprus was proclaimed . It was a kind of attempt to put the Greeks before the necessity to go for a federative instead of a unitary state. This idea was not supported either by the Republic of Cyprus or by the international community. After 8 years of negotiations with the Republic of Cyprus, the North declared its independence in 1983. The new self-declared state became known as the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus. The Declaration of Independence of the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus however has been rejected by both the Republic of Cyprus and the UN.
Note: The Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus is not recognized by any member of the international community other than Turkey (Turkey itself does not recognize the legitimacy of the Government of the Republic of Cyprus). In view of the above, no authorities and government posts created in the TRNC can be recognized as legitimate.
According to the Constitution of the TRNC, it is a democratic republic governed by a president elected for a five-year term. The legislative body is the House of Representatives (Tur. Temsilciler Meclisi), consisting of 50 members elected through proportional elections in five constituencies.
In the February 2005 elections, the Turkish Republican Party, which campaigned for the reunification of Cyprus, won the most seats in parliament but failed to win an overwhelming majority.
At the end of September 2006, TRNC President Mehmet Ali Talat approved the decision to establish a new government headed by the leader of the Turkish Republican Party, Ferdi Sabit Soyer. The TRNC Cabinet was formed based on a coalition of the Turkish Republican Party and the Freedom and Reform Party .
The international community, with the exception of Turkey, does not recognize Northern Cyprus as an independent state. (The Autonomous Republic of Nakhichevan (Azerbaijan) has also recognized the independence of the TRNC, but Azerbaijan itself did not support this decision). The Organization of the Islamic Conference has granted TRNC the status of part of a federal state and an observer.
Negotiations on the unification of the island have been going on for a long time, but so far have not borne fruit. The last attempt to do so failed in a referendum held on the island under the auspices of the UN on April 26, 2004. The latest attempt at a unification referendum, held on April 26, 2004 under the auspices of the UN, failed. 75% of Greek Cypriots voted against unification, unlike the Turkish Cypriots, most of whom supported unification on the basis of the plan proposed by UN Secretary General Kofi Annan (although it should be noted that not only Turkish Cypriots took part in the referendum but also migrants from Turkey who came to Cyprus, which according to the Greek authorities of Cyprus already outnumber the Turkish Cypriots themselves).
The UN Cyprus settlement plan (Annan Plan) called for a bicommunal, bizonal state to be established on the island instead of a united Republic of Cyprus, which, according to Greeks, would have meant de facto recognition of the Turkish occupation of the northern part of the island by a reversal of all previous UN Security Council resolutions on Cyprus. Under this plan, Turkey was entitled to keep its military contingent on the island. Moreover, it would have legally legitimized the treaties previously concluded by the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus and Turkey, which, inter alia, gave Turkish troops the right to use all Cyprus harbors, to conduct movements across the island and to have Turkish air force flights over the whole territory of Cyprus. The Turkish side would get a right of veto in a united government of Cyprus. At the same time all public institutions in a united Cyprus would be 95 per cent funded by Greece. Greeks’ rights to deal with property in the north of the island would be restricted until standards of living between the two communities had been achieved.
Transport and communications
The seaports of Northern Cyprus have been declared closed to all vessels by the Republic of Cyprus since the 1974 Turkish invasion. Turkey ignores this declaration. Ships registered in North Cyprus have free access to Turkish seaports, while ships flying the flag of the Republic of Cyprus are not allowed in them, despite the signed agreement on customs union between the EU and Turkey. The European Union demanded that Turkey lift the ban on access of Cypriot ships and aircraft to ports and airports of Turkey, as well as recognize the Republic of Cyprus as one of the conditions of Turkey’s accession to the European Union.
Anyone who has been granted citizenship status in Northern Cyprus may be denied permission to enter the Republic of Cyprus or Greece, although this restriction has been somewhat relaxed following Cyprus’ accession to the EU and the implementation by the Republic of Cyprus of a series of confidence-building measures. The authorities of the Republic of Cyprus allow the free passage of persons through the Green Line in Nicosia and at several other crossing points, since the TRNC authorities do not require entry visas and do not mark their documents as TRNC residency.
Northern Cyprus is an unrecognized republic
Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus is a self-proclaimed state entity in northern Cyprus. RIA Novosti, 13.02.2020
The Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus is a self-proclaimed state entity in northern Cyprus. Cyprus, which was part of the British colonial possessions, gained independence on August 16, 1960. The 1959 Zurich-London Accords, which considerably limited the sovereignty of the Republic, were the legal expression of the granting of independence. In accordance with these documents, Britain, Greece and Turkey were given the status of guarantors of “Independence, Territorial Integrity and Security” of Cyprus, which implied the possibility of intervention by these states in its internal affairs. On July 15, 1974 there was an attempted coup d’etat in Cyprus by reactionary forces, supported by the Athenian military junta, which pursued a policy of “enosis” (annexation of the island to Greece). Cypriot President Makarios III was removed from power when coup plotters led by Nikos Sampson seized the capital’s airport, the governmental radio station, the presidential palace and several administrative buildings in Nicosia. In response, Turkey, referring to the Zurich-London accords, used its status as a guarantor state of Cyprus’s security and, under the pretext of protecting the constitutional rights of the Turkish Cypriots, introduced its troops on the island, occupying about 37% of the territory of the Republic of Cyprus. More than 160,000 Greek Cypriots were expelled from their homes in northern Cyprus, which in turn were taken over by Turkish Cypriots in the south. On 13 February 1975, the Turkish Community leadership unilaterally proclaimed a so-called “Turkish federative state of Cyprus” in the north of the island, with Rauf Denktas as its first President.15 On November 15, 1983, the legislative assembly of the “Turkish Federative State of Cyprus” unilaterally proclaimed the so-called independent Turkish-Cypriot state, the “Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus” (TRNC).The Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus is separated from the rest of Cyprus by a buffer zone. The line separating the island into two sectors (the so-called Green Line) is guarded by a contingent of the UN Peacekeeping Force in Cyprus (UNFICYP). “The Green Line also passes through the historic center of the island capital Nicosia, the tourist and shopping street Ledra. Currently, only Turkey officially recognizes Northern Cyprus and maintains diplomatic relations with it at the level of embassies. Several states have official or unofficial representations: the U.S., Germany, Italy, Australia, Britain, France and the EU as a whole.The unrecognized republic itself also has a number of consulates in Turkey. In some countries the TRNC has unofficial representations, which are de facto embassies and consulates. Turkey represents the interests of the TRNC in countries where there are no such representations. The area of the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus is 3,355 square kilometers.The capital of the TRNC is the northern part of Nicosia, the capital of the Republic of Cyprus (Turkish name Lefkosa). The population of the TRNC is estimated at 360 thousand people. English is widely spoken. The Constitution of May 5, 1985 defines the state system as a parliamentary democracy. Executive power is vested in the president and council of ministers. Legislative power in the republic is exercised by the legislative assembly of 50 deputies. The president appoints the prime minister (from among the members of the legislative assembly) and ministers on the proposal of the prime minister.