Geography of Peru: topography, climate, flora and fauna, population
Peru is a state in South America. It borders Ecuador to the northwest, Colombia to the north, Brazil to the east, and Bolivia and Chile to the southeast. The country is washed by the Pacific Ocean to the west. It has an area of 1,285,220 sq km. The total length of the border is 5,536 km (the length of the border with Bolivia is 900 km, with Brazil – 1,560 km, with Chile – 160 km, with Colombia – 1,496 km and with Ecuador – 1,420 km). The length of the coastline: 2,414 km.
The administrative divisions of Peru are divided into 25 departments. The capital city is Lima. The head of state is the president. Peru’s legislative body is the Democratic Constituent Congress.
In terms of natural conditions Peru is divided into three zones: coastal (Costa) – 12% of the territory, mountainous (Sierra) – 27%, forested (Selva) – 61% of the territory. They are divided into areas: the northern part of the Costa is formed by the Sechura Desert; the central and southern parts stretch between the Coastal Cordillera and the ocean in a narrow arid ribbon (up to 80 km); the mountainous country begins Cordillera Condora.
Topography and minerals
Republic with mountainous terrain on the Pacific coast of South America. Narrow coastal lowlands have a dry climate. Three Andean mountain ranges stretch across the country from north to south, an area prone to earthquakes. In the west of Peru, along the Pacific coast, a narrow strip of desert coastal plains (Costa). To the east is the Andes mountain range (Sierra). To the east there is the Amazon lowland (Selva). (Selva), which changes to a piedmont plain (Montaña) in the south.
The western Cordillera (more than 6 thousand m high) abounds in volcanoes: active ones – Solimana (6117 m), Misti (5821 m), etc.; extinct ones – Uascaran (6768 m), Koropuna (6425 m), Ausangate (6384 m), etc.
In the south, intermountain plateaus and plateaus of 3000-4000 m high form a large semi-desert plateau – Punu. Here, in the south stands out the intermountain depression of the Altiplano with high-mountain Lake Titicaca (Peru owns only the western part of the lake). In the northern part of the Costa there are many short rivers flowing into the ocean (Piura, Santa, Tumbes, Chira). In Puna, the inland drainage basin of Lake Titika-ka stands out. Most of the Sierra and Selva rivers are part of the Amazon river system, its main source being the Maran-on River along with its tributaries the Huallaga and Ucayali.
There are three major natural areas within the country from west to east: 1) Costa, the coastal desert; 2) Sierra, the Andean highlands; and 3) Selva, the eastern slopes of the Andes and the adjoining plains of the Amazon basin.
The Coastal Desert – Costa, which stretches in a narrow indented strip along the entire Peruvian coast (2,270 km), is the northern extension of the Chilean Atacama Desert. In the north, between the cities of Piura and Chiclayo, the desert occupies a wide lowland, the surface of which is mostly occupied by shifting sand dunes. To the south, from Chiclayo to Pisco, the steep slopes of the Andes approach the ocean itself. Near Pisco, several merging cones of river outcrops form a narrow lowland of irregular shapes, in some places blocked by mountain spurs. To the south, a low ridge of mountains rises near the shore, reaching about 900 m above sea level. To the east of it extends a deeply dissected rocky surface, gradually rising to the foot of the Andes. Most of the Costa is so arid that of the 52 rivers that flow westward from the Andes, only ten reach the ocean. The coast is the most economically important area of Peru. Its 40 oases produce most of the most important crops, including exports. The coast is also home to a number of major cities – Lima, Callao, Chiclayo, and Trujillo.
The highlands of the Andes are the Sierra. The Peruvian Andes, which are 320 km wide, occupy more than one-third of the country; their peaks reach heights of 5,500 m above sea level. Numerous mountain ranges extend roughly from northwest to southeast. Ten peaks rise above 6,100 m, and the highest of these, Huascaran, reaches 6,768 m. Volcanoes can be found in the southern part, the most famous of which is the Misty cone (5,822 m), towering over the city of Arequipa. The eastern slopes of the Andes, which receive heavy rainfall, are dissected by deeply incised river valleys and form a chaotic jumble of sharp ridges, alternating with canyons up to 3000 m deep; several large tributaries of the Amazon River originate here. This area of sharply and deeply rugged terrain presents the greatest difficulties in crossing the Andes. The Indians live here, using as crops narrow strips of fertile land on the bottoms of river valleys and in the lower parts of the slopes. Lake Titicaca, at 3,812 meters above sea level, on the border of Peru and Bolivia, is the largest alpine lake in the world and is 8,446 sq km in area, with 59% of the territory of Peru.
The soils of Costa and the western slopes of the Andes are not fertile. The mountainous region is dominated by mountain-steppe soils in the north and east, and by semi-desert characteristic soils in the southeast.
The Selva includes the lower part of the eastern slopes of the Andes and the adjoining flat plains of the Amazon basin. This area occupies more than half of the country’s total land area. The plains are covered with dense, high-growth tropical rain forests, and the only means of communication here are the major rivers, the Ucayali, the upper Amazon, here called the Marañón, and the Napo. The main economic center of the area is Iquitos, located on the Amazon River; it is the highest point that can be reached by river steamers with a draft of more than 4 m.
Peru has always stood out for its wealth of minerals, especially gold, silver, copper mines, reserves of iron ore, mercury, tungsten, and manganese. There are salt mines and coal deposits. Guano reserves are exhausted.
Climate of Peru
The average temperature on the coast of Peru ranges from + 14 ° C to + 27 ° C, rainfall up to 3000 mm per year, while in the highlands or sierra it is usually cool, sunny and dry most of the year. The average temperature here varies from +9°C to +18°C. December through May is the rainy season in the Sierra, with 700 to 1,000 mm of rainfall per year. The jungle is hot and humid, +25-28 ° C. Lima suffers from garua, a dense, damp fog that covers the entire city even in winter.
Coastal Desert. The ocean coast is very dry and cool because of the nearby cold Peruvian Current (Humboldt Current). Sea breezes keep the average temperature 6° C below the latitudinal norm. In Lima it ranges from 16 to 23° C. Statistically, the annual rainfall rate here is 50 mm, but in some years it does not rain at all. In the winter (June through October), the sky is always covered with clouds, and fogs are common on the coast. At this time of year, the foothills of the Andes are shrouded in a damp haze, locally called “garua.” The garua stimulates the growth of low grasses and variegated ephemera, which together form a community called “loma” and are used as pasture.
Highlands of the Andes. Climatic conditions and vegetation cover of the mountains vary with absolute altitude. Average temperatures decrease by about 1.7° C with an ascent of every 450 m. Eternal snows and glaciers cover peaks above 5,000 m asl, and farming is possible up to 4,400 m asl. Average temperatures in Cusco (3,380 m asl) vary from 8 to 11° C for each year, with frequent frosts at night. On the open eastern slopes annual rainfall exceeds 2500 mm, in the closed hollows it is much less, being, for example, 810 mm in Cuzco.
The amount of precipitation decreases rapidly towards the south, strongly affecting the character of the vegetation. In the north and east of the country the middle part of the Andean slopes is covered by a dense subtropical mountain forest, which with altitude is gradually replaced by a forest of a more moderate climatic type, called ceja de la montaña (“brow of the mountain”), or simply “seja”. Among its species, the most valuable is the cinquefoil, a source of quinine. In the south, the highland vegetation consists mainly of the drought-resistant feather grass, low grass and the resinous shrub lepidophyllum (this community is called “tola”). Cacti, prickly legumes, and deciduous broad-leaved trees occupy the bottom and lower parts of the slopes of the dry enclosed valleys, while “sekha” covers the upper part of the slopes.
Selva. The humid tropical forest zone has year-round high temperatures and abundant rainfall. In Iquitos, the average temperature of the coldest month is 23° C and the hottest is only 26° C, with an annual rainfall of 2615 mm. The natural vegetation is represented by high-tree rainforest, under the canopy of which the dense shade practically prevents the development of the ground layer. Of the thousands of tree species, acaju (mahogany) and cedrela are the most economically important. Cereals grow on poorly drained areas, and hard grasses and low shrubs grow on loose sandy soils and rocky slopes.
The animal life of Peru
The animal life of Costa on land is scarce. Of the animal life on the territory of Peru live jaguar, puma, llama, monkeys, anteater, sloth, tapir, chinchilla, armadillo, crocodile, a large number of birds, snakes, lizards and insects.The islands are abundant world of sea birds and rich aquatic kingdom (clams, shrimp, different types of fish, especially anchovies). In the Sierra there are representatives of the genus llamas – guanaco and vicuña, many birds. Lake Titicaca abounds in fish (especially trout). In Selva there are peccaries, tapirs, anteaters, a lot of monkeys, especially birds (toucans, parrots, hummingbirds), reptiles and insects.
The Selva presents a tropical fauna including many species of birds, reptiles and mammals, while in the Andes the main animals are llamas, alpacas, vicuñas and guanacos. Among the rodents of the highlands are the viscacha and the chinchilla. In the cold waters lining the coastal desert, abundant plankton provides food for many species of commercial fish, including tuna, pelamid, swordfish, mackerel, humpback and rock bass. Millions of seabirds, including pelicans, cormorants and bald eagles, feed on sea fish. They nest on rocky islets and their feces, which are well preserved in the arid climate, are used as fertilizer, the so-called guano. The fragile ecological equilibrium of coastal communities is periodically disturbed by the invasion of warm equatorial waters pushing back the Peruvian current. This phenomenon is called El Niño. It causes plankton and fish to migrate, causing many birds to starve to death. At the same time, huge clouds form over the ocean, bringing torrential rains over the desert.
Population of Peru
Ethnicity and language. The rain forests of eastern Peru are inhabited by about a hundred Indian tribes. These tribes, virtually isolated from the rest of the population, speak local languages and make their living by hunting, fishing, and farming. Another indigenous group includes Quechua and Aymara-speaking Indians. Many have migrated to the capital Lima and other coastal cities, especially since the 1980 guerrilla war in the mountains, but most continue to live in the Andes, farming and cattle ranching. The rest of the population is made up of Creoles, white descendants of Europeans, mostly Spaniards, who until the 1970s virtually dominated the country; Mestizos, descendants of mixed marriages of Europeans and Indians, who make up the bulk of the middle class; and some Negroes and Asians.
In 2003, Peru’s population was estimated at 28.40 million. By 2003, the population was increasing annually by an average of 1.61%. By 2005, the population is expected to be about 28,659,000. The birth rate is estimated at 22.81 per 1,000 inhabitants and the death rate at 5.69 deaths per 1,000 inhabitants.Life expectancy in Peru is 68.45 years for men and 73.43 years for women. The once predominantly rural country has rapidly urbanized, so that in 1997 more than 70% of its inhabitants lived in cities. About 60% of the population is concentrated in the coastal zone, which makes up only 11% of Peru’s territory, and is where the main centers of political and economic life of the country are located. About 30% of Peruvians live in the mountains and 10% live in the Amazon Selva.
Peruvian cities are expanding rapidly as migrants and refugees from the highlands settle on the outskirts of Lima and other centers. There they build shelters, build houses, and form so-called “young cities. Peru’s largest city, Lima, the country’s capital and its administrative, financial, and cultural center, has a population (1997 estimate) of 5,659,000. Other large cities are Arequipa (634,000) in the south; Trujillo (532,000), Callao (515,000), Chiclayo (426,000), Piura (324,000), and Chimbote (296,000) in the north and central coast; Cuzco (275,000) in the south of the Andean mountain region. ) in the southern Andes mountain region; and Iquitos (269,000) in the upper Amazon (all the above estimates of urban population, with the exception of Lima, are for 1993).
About 90% of the population formally belongs to the Roman Catholic Church, although most attend services only occasionally or do not perform rites at all and are more attached to traditional popular beliefs. The Catholic clergy receive a small annual stipend from the government. In 1979 a concordat was signed between the Vatican and the Peruvian government securing the separation of church and state and proclaiming freedom of worship. Recently the number of Protestants, Evangelicals, and Pentecostals has increased, but they make up no more than 6% of the population.
Lima, Peru: Geography and Climate
Peru is one of the most amazing places in the world. It is located in the west of South America and neighbors Brazil to the east, Bolivia and Chile to the southeast, Colombia to the north, and Ecuador to the northwest.
Save on a trip to Peru!
Peru has everything to satisfy the most discerning traveler.
Peru is called the “land of the Incas” because this powerful civilization flourished here in ancient times. The Inca Empire left a grand legacy of temples, a network of excellent roads and aqueducts, and the legends of mythical gold and lost cities are still alive in Peru today. The ethnic composition of Peru is dominated by the Quechua and Aymara Indians (45%), followed by mestizos (37%), Europeans (15%) and other nationalities (3%). Although officially the vast majority of Peruvians are Catholic, in reality many adhere to traditional beliefs. Therefore, in some parts of the country, Indian customs and culture remain almost untouched.
Dreaming of finding the secret road to Machu Picchu? See the Amazon flood with your own eyes? Want to try carapucha and sebiche? Immerse yourself in the mysteries of ancient civilizations, stunning nature, unique local flavor – and you will see that one trip can completely change your life.
Lake Titicaca Machu Picchu
Cities of Peru
Climate and weather
Peru’s topography is very varied, so climatic conditions vary greatly within the same country. Nevertheless, you can travel to Peru all year round, because the coast is always warm: the average monthly temperature does not go beyond +15 … -25 ° C. At the same time there is not much rain – the annual rainfall is only about 100 mm in the south, and 200 mm in the north. Often there is a light drizzle called “garúa” instead of rain. Peruvians, however, still call it rain, and they know it has “rained” by their wet clothes, covered with droplets of moisture.
In the mountainous areas in eastern Peru, the weather conditions are very different. It is much cooler here: the summer day temperature does not exceed +19-21 ° C, and at night it is +4-6 ° C. In winter the mercury column rises to +16-18 °С during the day and falls to -2-6 °С at night.
Mountain lake in the Andes
If you climb to the tops of the mountains in the Puna zone, it is not only cold there (average summer temperature +3-7 °С, winter temperature from 0 to -7 °С), but also rainy: in the western part of Andes it is up to 700 mm of rainfall, and in the east 2000 mm. Those planning to climb the Peruvian mountains should know that the dry period lasts from April to October.
Very different, though also extreme, weather conditions await the traveler in the rainforest (or jungle). Here is a typical subequatorial climate with all its charms: hot, humid and stuffy.
In summer the temperature ruthlessly holds at +34 ° C and at night falls to +24 ° C, in winter time is not much cooler – +30 ° C and +20 ° C respectively.
It’s better to travel through the jungle from April to October to avoid the rainy season, during which it falls up to 3800 mm of rainfall.
Peru is a country unique in terms of natural resources. Only here 84 of the 104 existing biological zones on earth are represented. It is difficult to find anywhere else such an abundance of flora and fauna in one place.
Overall, Peru’s natural diversity is divided into three major contrasting areas. These are the Costa, Sierra and Selva, the Amazon rainforest.
The Costa is the coastal desert of Peru. Although the Costa vegetation is poor, the animal world will not leave anyone indifferent – here you have penguins, sea lions, and Chilean flamingos, Peruvian pelicans, Inca terns.
The Sierra is the highlands of the Andes. Just imagine: in Peru, 38 mountain peaks reach heights of over 6,000 meters! The highest mountain is Huascaran (6,768 m). The landscape of the Sierra is something amazing: the deepest canyons, massive glaciers, wide plateaus. The largest alpine lake on earth, Titicaca, is located in the Peruvian Andes. This area is also home to the rarest animal, the chinchilla, whose fur is worth its weight in gold.
Selva welcomes you with a huge variety of exotic flowers and trees. Here grows rubber, mahogany, sarsaparilla. In ancient times, the Incas called it Omagua, that is, “the place where the fish are. And indeed, more than a thousand species of fish live in the Amazon and its tributaries. And did you know that from the shores of the Amazon you can easily see pink dolphins?
Peru has a huge number of places that can leave an indelible impression in the traveler’s soul. Although they can be divided into the historical heritage and natural treasures, they all remain undivided.
There are more than 180 museums and a huge number of archaeological parks in Peru.
The most famous of them are Machu Picchu, the reserved city of the Incas, which was given the status of the eighth wonder of the world, and the mysterious Nazca desert, where the stone plateau is painted with huge images. They can only be seen from a bird’s eye view. It is still unclear who created these drawings and for what purpose.
Cusco, the archaeological capital of Peru, Arequipa, a beautiful city located more than 2000 meters above sea level, and Trujillo, the capital of Costa, still preserving the style of the colonial era, are definitely worth a visit.
Peru’s natural beauties are magnificent national parks. The Manu Reserve alone is home to over 100 species of reptiles, 200 species of mammals and 800 species of birds. UNESCO has declared this park a Natural Property of Humanity. The national park of Huascaran, which has 296 lakes and 663 glaciers, also impresses!
Peru’s national cuisine is a harmonious blend of European and Amerindian traditions, which has ensured its diversity and identity. Every region of the country boasts its own “know-how,” but wherever you go, there will be pepper, potatoes, garlic, yams, tropical fruits, vegetables, and, of course, corn.
Meat in Peru is cooked in a variety of ways. If you are a thrill-seeker, you will probably like the “cui” – fried or stewed guinea pig. On the coast of Peru, fish and seafood rule. One of the most popular dishes is ceviche, raw fish marinated in lemon juice and spices.
Shish kebabs Different varieties of potatoes.
Potatoes have a distinctive place in Peruvian gastronomy. There are more than 2000 varieties of potatoes alone! While traveling through Peru, you can’t help but try “cauza” – a puff pastry made of mashed potatoes – and “carapulcra” – dried potatoes with chicken, pork, and seeds.
As for drinks, a truly Peruvian invention, the Pisco Sur cocktail, is worth appreciating. It is made of grape vodka, egg whites, lemon juice, sugar and spices. A popular refreshing drink is the “chichu morado”, made from corn kernels with sugar and spices.
In restaurants, the average bill for a dinner is $15-20. The tip is about 10% and is usually included in the bill.
Peru welcomes tourists hospitably regardless of their living budget. Surprisingly, even in the capital you can find a hostel for $5-8 per night per person. Of course, in this case you should not expect much comfort.
Hotel in the valley, not far from Cusco Lima – the capital of Peru
In general, Peruvian hotels fully comply with international standards, and best of all, are attracted by democratic prices. So a double room at a 3* hotel in Cusco and Arequipa costs about $40-60 per night. But if you want to visit Machu Picchu and stay in the town of Aguas Calientes, then you will have to pay extra for the proximity to the wonder of the world – a room at a 3* hotel will cost $80-90. And of course in Lima and Cuzco it’s easy to find 5* hotels for $250 and up.
If you are planning to stay in Peru for a long time you can rent an apartment. This will save you a lot of money on accommodation. As elsewhere in the world, the cost of renting will depend on location, number of rooms, length of stay, repairs in the apartment. A one-bedroom apartment near the center will cost 250-300 dollars a month. Interesting, but the Internet in the search for housing in Peru is not a helper. This is when to walk the streets – usually advertisements for accommodation are hung right on the doors of homes.
Entertainment and Recreation
Beach holidays in Peru is a tourist’s dream. Each beach has its own charm. Among the popular beaches are quiet romantic Punta Sal near the town of Tumbes, cozy Zorritos, where the water heats up to 26 ° C, an impressive beach Mancora – 20 km of soft sand and strong waves. It is a true paradise for surfers. All beaches have schools, where beginners are taught to conquer the wave. One hour of lessons costs about $ 15.
Punta Salle Beach
Water enthusiasts can also go scuba diving, sport fishing, deep sea hunting, and yachting.
Trekking through scenic areas is one of the most popular outdoor activities in Peru. From May to September, hikes are organized along the Inca Trail. Mount Huascaran attracts mountain climbers, and Peruvian rivers attract rafting and canoeing enthusiasts.
Peru is a land of colorful festivals and holidays. One of the most important holidays for the locals is “Inti Raimi,” the day of the summer solstice on June 24. On that day, Cusco and Sacsayhuaman hold a colorful ceremony to welcome the sun.
For the traveler, it is especially interesting to visit traditional Peruvian events: the Marinera Dance Festival in La Libertad in January, Carnival from February to March, then La Vendimina Wine Festival, San Juan Festival in Iquitos. Finally, there’s even a guinea pig festival!
Peru is the place for unforgettable shopping. Large stores and malls offer an abundance of goods and are usually open from 09:00 to 20:00 without weekends.
Mall in Lima.
There are also 24-hour supermarkets, though only in the capital. There, the cashier’s check may indicate 2 prices – in dollars and in soles. This means you can pay in dollars, but you’ll still get the change in salt. In the provinces, especially in small towns, stores may have their own schedule.
If you want a real flavour, the open markets are where you can and should bargain hard before buying.
A set of traditional souvenirs from Peru includes:
- alpaca wool products;
- gold and silver jewelry;
- rugs made of llama wool;
- musical instruments;
The geography of shopping is as follows: Cusco and Machu Picchu offer woolen items, furs, and masks; Puno and Lake Titicaca offer quality textiles and original musical instruments; Amazonian artisans offer earthenware, household items, and painted clothing; and Arequipa offers metal furniture and stone souvenirs. But of course, you can find all this in Lima’s city center if you want to.
A bored souvenir seller
When you get carried away with souvenir shopping, however, don’t forget to keep your receipt. They may ask for it at the airport when you leave Lima.
Due to the high mountains and impenetrable jungle some parts of the country can only be reached by plane. But don’t let this scare you – several local airlines can easily organize flights to Peruvian cities and neighboring countries. In this case, the price of tickets for local traffic is not much hitting the pockets: the cost of the most expensive flight from Lima to Arequipa about $ 100, and from Puno to La Paz, you can fly for $ 13. Keep in mind that Peruvian airlines have a strict dry law, so don’t even try to order champagne!
You can also travel around Peru by bus. It’s comfortable and not expensive, but the long distances are very long.
The Peruvian railroad is the cheapest way to travel long distances. For example, a first-class ticket from Cusco to Puno costs $15. However, because of its affordability, the trains are constantly overcrowded.
In Selva, you will be offered to travel by canoe or motorboat, since there are very few regular roads.
In the cities, it is best to travel by minibus “kombis”, as the fare is not much higher than in buses, but they are much more comfortable. The only drawback is that they do not run on all routes.
The price of a cab in Peru will not be shocking if you negotiate the price in advance.
In order to use cell phones in Peru, you need a phone that supports the 1800 band. You can buy a local SIM card from the operator Claro, which will give you the opportunity to call around the country and abroad.
A baby, a llama, and a mom
You can make international calls from ordinary phones – to do this, buy a calling card (Numero1 or similar) in the denomination of 10 sols or more. You can also call abroad from special intercom booths. Street phones are good for local calls. But calling from hotels is expensive.
To make an international call from Peru, dial 00 – country code – city code – subscriber number.
Internet cafes are available in all relatively large cities. One hour costs approximately $1 to $2. Most hotels provide Internet access, many have free Wi-Fi in the rooms. But in the mountains and remote villages it is better not to rely on cell phones and the Internet.
Peru is a relatively safe country. The government relies on the development of tourism, so in general traveling in Peru is comfortable and safe.
The biggest problem, unfortunately, faced by many careless tourists is theft. Therefore, do not carry large sums of cash and do not leave personal belongings unattended. Remember that hotels are not responsible for security of valuable things in the rooms, so keep your money, jewelry, and other valuables in the special safes provided by the hotel administration.
Police on Duty
Also, Peru has yet to eradicate such phenomena as begging on the streets and obsessive entreaties of locals to buy something from them. Be careful not to give in to the solicitations of both, or you will be surrounded by a mob that will make it much more difficult to handle.
If you have problems the so-called tourist police can help. If you have lost your documents or are lost on your own, you can always turn to them for help. Some helpful numbers are: 116 for the fire department, 105 for the police, and 4600921 for the Lima Tourist Police.
In Peru, it is in principle not difficult for a foreigner to open their own business. Foreign business here has advantages such as relatively low taxes and free export of capital. Most often foreign capital is invested in the service sector: hotels, entertainment centers, restaurants, tourism. Small and medium-sized enterprises have tax exemptions during the first two years of their operations.
Unfortunately, doing business in Peru has its disadvantages. While bemoaning the slow Peruvian way of life, experienced entrepreneurs advise newcomers to be patient. First, the legal registration process can take two to three months. Second, small and medium-sized business owners must re-register once a year for the first five years after starting a business.
Today, foreigners are increasingly buying property in Peru. This can be explained not only by the scenic beauty of Peru and a favorable climate, but also affordability. For example, the average three-bedroom mansion with views of the coast will cost about two hundred thousand U.S. dollars, and a modern spacious one-bedroom apartment in Lima can be found for eighty thousand dollars. In the province of housing will cost much less.
An undeniable advantage for foreigners buying property in Peru – is that it can be owned in their name, and the property tax will not be an unbearable burden. The only limitation – foreigners can not buy homes near military bases and municipal facilities.
The disadvantages of buying a home in Peru are traditionally associated with red tape: the paperwork process may take six months.
Tips for the tourist
There are some things to pay special attention to when traveling in Peru.
Do not drink tap water in Peru, buy bottled water. As for milk, it is recommended to use only pasteurized milk. It is extremely risky to buy food on the street.
If you plan to visit Selva, be sure to get vaccinations against yellow fever, and hepatitis B and D at least a week before your trip. If you are going on a trip to the Amazon, be sure to take medication for malaria, sunscreen, insect repellent, and clothing that covers your body completely.
By boat through the jungle Coast in Lima
If you have cardiovascular disease, be sure to consult your doctor for “mountain sickness” before visiting the mountains.
Keep in mind that it is illegal to bring fresh produce, weapons, and drugs into Peru. If drugs are found at border control, the owner will be detained in pre-trial detention. In addition, without special permission you can not bring in and take out art and historical values, animals and plants.
As for currency, it is best to take the U.S. dollar with you to Peru. The fact is that the currency of other countries can be changed only in major banks. In general, it is wiser to change money not in hotels, and in exchange offices.
About visa to Peru: Russian citizens do not need it if the purpose of travel is tourism and stay in the country not more than 90 days. Then, by the way, the visa can be extended by visiting the office of the General Directorate of the Immigration Service in Lima. It costs $20, the visa can be extended for up to 30 days, and you can take advantage of this opportunity three times. Upon entry into Peru must be asked to present a passport and return ticket.
Note that the passport must be valid for six months from the end of the trip. Transit visa to Peru is required for Russians, if they plan to be in the country for more than 2 days. Business and work visa, and investor visa is issued in the Consular Section of the Embassy of Peru in Moscow. Consular fee of $30 will be charged for processing visas.