Warsaw and former Polish capitals
Poland is one of the key countries in the history of Europe. Everyone knows its capital, Warsaw. But what many people don’t know is that it wasn’t always like this.
In 877 Moravia conquered Greater and Lesser Poland. The center of the formation of the country remained Great Poland, and the capital city was Gniezno. It is considered by historians to be one of the oldest settlements, the earliest ones dating back to the eighth century. It was the first capital of ancient Poland, at the zenith of the Piast Way, which brought the cities of the Middle Ages together. Prince Mieszko completed the unification of the Slavic tribes and is considered the first official leader of the country. He converted the Poles to the Christian faith. The first archbishopric was organized precisely in this city. In those distant times Gniezno was famous as a powerful center of craftsmen, was active in trade with Eastern countries, and was on friendly terms with Kievan Rus. Since 1001 it was the cathedral city of the bishopric, the place of ascension to the throne until the 14th century. The historic meeting between the Emperor Otto and Boleslaus the Brave took place in Gniezno, where it was decided that Poland would become independent and Boleslaus would ascend the throne as king. The patron of the city is St. Wojciech – preacher, priest, great martyr. From 1793 to 1807 and from 1815 to 1918 the city was part of Prussia.
The rich history of the city attracts tourists from all over the world. The city has many historical monuments and architectural masterpieces – the Gothic Church of the Virgin Mary, the Gniezno Gate, numerous tombstones and monasteries. Nowadays it is a relatively small town with a population of only 70,000 people.
The formation of this city is intertwined with the beginning of the formation of the Polish nation and Polish statehood. The very first Slavic tribes began to settle in this area in the ninth century, when a castle was built on Tula Island, the Warta River. Prince Mieszko and King Boleslaw the Brave put a lot of efforts into the development of the city. And in 968 a diocese was formed here. At that time Poznan was one of the two main centers of Poland.
For many centuries Poznan was a strategic, commercial, transport and commercial center for Poland and the entire nation. And it became especially popular thanks to the international trade fairs that began to take place in the twenties of the last century. It is visited not only for business, but also to get acquainted with the historical heritage, culture and architecture. This city of half a million people is considered the cradle of the Polish nation, the third most important place in the country after Warsaw and Krakow. Tourists from all over the world marvel at the gorgeous Old Town.
Poznan is the capital of the Great Poland, although officially it has never been the capital of Poland, according to most historians. But in terms of importance in the history of the country it is worthy of it. The Renaissance Town Hall, the oldest cathedral in Poland on Tumski Ostrow, the stern Prussian castle deserve a visit. Tourists love to relax in the numerous parks of the city and near the artificial Lake Malta.
In 1320 the Kuyavian prince Wladyslaw Lokietek annexed Greater Poland to his lands and was crowned in Krakow. Since then, Krakow, located on the left bank of the Vistula River, has been the next capital of Poland. The convenient geographical location contributed to the development of the city and its transformation into the capital. In the Middle Ages its population reached 100,000, but by the end of the eighteenth century there were only about 10,000 inhabitants. Since 1610, the seat of Poland’s rulers moved to Warsaw.
Now almost 800,000 people live in Krakow – it is the second largest city in Poland. It was the official capital of Poland from the 14th to the 17th century. And until the 18th century Polish rulers were crowned here. Krakow is full of historical monuments, listed by UNESCO. And in 2000 it was the European Capital of Culture. In addition to the fact that it is a major cultural, scientific and economic center – it is loved by tourists. The city has the remains of the 15th century fortress, about forty churches, numerous chapels, about thirty monasteries and seven synagogues. The Cathedral of St. Stanislaus and Vaclav, built in the 14th century, is world famous. The burial vaults of Polish kings, bishops and national heroes, the Baroque St. Anne’s Church and the Gothic Church of Virgin Mary are well-known. Many museums, palaces and ancient buildings. Jagiellonian treasury of books contains about 310000 volumes and five thousand ancient manuscripts. Because of the large presence of remnants of antiquity Krakow is regarded as the Polish St. Petersburg, or Polish Athens.
In 1586 Batory dies, people elect the Swedish King Sigismund Vaza. He did not last long in power and was deprived of the Swedish throne through great Catholic fanaticism. Several significant events are associated with his reign, including the transfer of the capital from Krakow to Warsaw. But coronations were still held in Krakow. In fact, the city became the capital in 1596. There was a fire in the Wawel castle and ruler Sigismund moved his residence here. And the capital status was documented only by the constitution adopted in 1791.
The Vistula River flows through the city. It was founded in about 13-14 century. The mermaid is considered the symbol of Warsaw. The capital has a rich history and culture. But in 1944 by order of Hitler about 80% of the city was destroyed. This affected the historic sites – the Royal Castle and Old Town. Many historical monuments were restored, however, not in strict historical conformity. The restored complex in the central part of the city is considered a piece of memory of prewar Warsaw. In the eighties, it was inscribed on the UNESCO list. Many historical monuments are of Russian origin. It is noteworthy that Warsaw is not the center of tourism in Poland. Most often it is used as a transit point. Everyone is interested to see how the city suffered during World War II. Besides museums, Warsaw attracts with its cafes, wonderful promenade on the Vistula River, the divine architecture of the center. Even modern skyscrapers are loved by tourists from all over the world.
Krakow – the city of the Aryan/Russian god Traetona/Trajan (King Gorokh)
Through the life of strangers, past weeping windows, And with faith in the responsiveness of the silent prosze – Towards the open streets of Krakow – Without a thought of “tomorrow” and as if without the past. And somewhere September drags on tediously, And somewhere calls with unanswered numbers… And there’s a day that stays with you Almost an adventure, but still a story – About the Old Pavement under the new paving stone, About the Vistula with the dragon and the poor boy, About faith in salvation by the cross and the cloud, And a strange time – passed in the future, Where in the early sunset, rising over the city, The immortal trumpeter turns to Wawel, And to the Bonerians’ house careless and young rushes Mniszek – to meet infamy, And clouds flock to the cross over the dome… But the hands of the watch are indifferent to sacredness, And in the Russian habit bought a return ticket beforehand brings him back to reality. Smiling salesman with amber tears, And “The White Lady” is menacing Not in a maiden’s way, And pours the aromas of courgettes and kavyarny, And draws lovers to Adam Mickiewicz. It’s getting dark. And the birds flutter over the square. And coffee is powerless against fatigue. Only your ancestor from Poland’s past still argues with the past tense verb.
Lana Jasnova, “Krakow.”
In the south of modern Poland is the ancient Aryan city of Krakow.
Here’s some of what’s being written about it now.
Krakow (Polish. Kraków (inf.) [ˈkrakuf]), the full official name is Stołeczne Królewskie Miasto Kraków , Latin Cracovia , German Krakau ) is a city in southern Poland, located on the Vistula River 295 km from Warsaw. It has a population of 769,498 (2018), together with the nearest suburbs exceeding one million. It is the second most populous Polish city (slightly larger than Łódź) and the second largest in size after Warsaw. It is the administrative center of the Małopolska Province, the center of the archdiocese. It was the capital of Poland from 1038 to 1596, till 1734 it was the coronation place of the Polish kings. The city center is rich in historical monuments. It is included in the list of UNESCO World Heritage Sites. One of the largest scientific, cultural, economic and religious centers of Poland, a popular tourist spot. Cultural capital of Europe in 2000 (https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/Краков).
Kraków ( / to g æ to aʊ , – to oʊ / , also USA : / to g e ɪ to -, to g ɑː to aʊ / , UK : / to g æ to ɒ e /, Polish: [krakuf] (listen)), also spelled Kraków in English, is the second largest and one of the oldest cities in Poland . It is located on the Vistula River in the Lesser Poland region, the city dates back to the 7th -th century. Krakow was the official capital of Poland until 1596 and has traditionally been one of the leading centers of Polish academic, economic, cultural and artistic life. Cited as one of the most beautiful cities in Europe, its Old Town was declared a UNESCO World Heritage Site. The city grew out of the Stone Age settlement of Poland’s second most important city. It began as a hamlet on the Wawel hill and was already reported as the busy commercial center of Central Europe in 965 With the creation of new universities and cultural institutions on the advent of the second Polish Republic in 1918 and throughout the 20th century, Krakow has confirmed its role as a major national academic and artistic center. The city is home to about 770,000 people, with an estimated 8 million new residents living within a 100 km (62 mi) radius of its main square (https://ru.qwe.wiki/wiki/Krakow).
Kraków (full official name – Royal Capital City / Stołeczne Królewskie Miasto Kraków) is a city in southern Poland, located on the Vistula River, 295 km from Warsaw. Poland’s second largest city by population (slightly ahead of Lodz) and area after Warsaw. It is the administrative center of the Małopolska Province, the center of the archdiocese. It was the capital of Poland from 1038 to 1596, till 1734 it was the coronation place of the Polish kings. The city center is rich in historical monuments. It is included in the list of UNESCO World Heritage Sites. One of the largest scientific, cultural, economic and religious centers of Poland, a popular tourist destination. The name comes from the personal name Krak (founder or ruler of the fortress, according to legend – the prince, who ruled in the VI-VII centuries). Krakow is one of the oldest and most beautiful cities in Poland, located in its south on the banks of the Vistula River. It is the former capital of the Kingdom of Poland, whose historical heritage was preserved during the Second World War firestorm and its historical center is included in the UNESCO list. Krakow impresses with its unique architecture and ancient sights, which are closely connected with the history of Poland and are of great importance to the Polish people: the legendary Wawel, the Main Marketplace and the Marianka Church, the Florian Gate and the Barbican. The city is conveniently situated on the Vistula River. The river became navigable in that very spot, which played a major role in Krakow’s development. The first mention of a settlement here dates back to the 10th century. Archeological research showed that already in the 11th century the fortification of the Slavic tribe of Vislians was located there. During the feudal era many Germans settled in the city (https://polonia39.com/krakow/).
The first mention of Krakow in historical documents dates back to 966: the Arab traveler Ibrahim ibn Jakub described it as a notable trading center under the rule of a Czech prince. The Polish prince Mieszko I conquered these places from the Czechs and included them into his domain. Krakow grew rapidly and became rich, and in 1000 Boleslaw the Brave established a bishop’s pulpit in Krakow (https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/История_Кракова).
Beautiful legends are associated with the history of Krakow about the founder of the city, Prince Krakow, and his daughter Wanda, who chose to throw herself into the Vistula River rather than become the wife of a German knight. Or the legend of the fearsome dragon Smok, whom King Krak’s son cunningly defeated near his cave at the foot of Wawel Hill. The first mention of Krakow in world history dates back to 965, when the Arab merchant Ibrahim ibn Jakub mentioned in his chronicle the Slavs and Russians arriving from Krakow to Prague (http://www.krakow.ru/tour/history.htm).
Founded by the legendary Krakow, the city on the Vistula is easy to explore. Tourists can explore the sights not only with a few handy mobile apps, but also with a more traditional signage system: maps and arrows pointing the way to the most important sites, placed in the center. Those arriving by train will take only fifteen minutes from the Central Station (through the huge Galeria Krakowska shopping center) to the Old Town, which begins the list of must see (https://www.poland.travel/ru/glavnye-goroda/krakov).
Thus it is believed that the city of Krakow was founded by a man named Krak, who was either a prince or the governor of the fortress, or someone else.
It is known that in ancient times, the territory where the modern city of Krakow is located belonged to the Aryan tribe of Shakhya (Shakya), from which came the legendary Scythians – Shakya (Sheki, Cheeks), Saka (Saki, Scythians, Skolote). By the way, the name Czechs also came from the name of this tribe (Shakya→Sheki→Chechi). That is why Cracow was originally a city of Czechs (i.e. descendants of the Shakyas), from whom it was eventually taken away by the Poles (see above).
Now let’s deal with its name.
The word Krakow consists of the root Krak- and the suffix -ov. The suffixes -ov (in Western Ukraine -iv, in Rusyn -in) and -ev denote belonging to someone or something, for example: the son of Peter – Petrov (son), the son of Ivan – Ivanov (son), the son of Sergei – Sergeev (son), etc. Thus, the city of Krak-ov is the city of Krak [as well as the city of Ke(i)-ev (Ki(i)-ev) is the city of Kea (Kiya?)].
What does the word Krak itself mean?
There is a well-known work “The Tale of Igor’s Campaign”. There are lines like these: Were vchichi Trojani, by-passed the years of Yaroslavl, were pltsi Olgovi, Olga Svyatslavlichi (http://old-ru.ru/03-1.html).
As you know, the Aryans had a god Traeton – he was considered the ancestor of the Aryans [aka Russian Trayan or Troyan, King Gorokh, Tarakh Tarakhovich, Scythian Targitai or Torgitai (Torg is Tarh, traded on the day of the god Tarakh at the walls of his shrines)]. – is a pot of pea porridge. Since the pot was made without a potter’s wheel (Aryans did not know it then) the pot came out askew. To hide this askew, the pot was turned into a sculpture – it was the head of a half-beast-half-man. It was believed that eating pea porridge from the head of the god Traeton filled the eaters with divine power. This was also associated with the consumption of intoxicating drinks from bowls made from the head of a defeated enemy, if he was a great warrior. His strength and valor were supposedly passed on to the drinker. It was a magical ritual, not a mockery of the defeated enemy.
That Trajan was King Peas is confirmed by some European languages, in which the word for “peas” would be as follows: English – peas; Welsh -pys; Gaelic – peas; Yiddish – [piz]; Irish – piseanna; Italian – piselli; Catalan – pèsols Maltese – pizelli; French – pois.
And in Latin “Trajan” is like “Antoninus Pius,
That is, both “peas” and “Trajan” are the same word in European languages with the sound skeleton “p-s” or “p-z”.
Now let’s see how the word “peas” would be in the Slavic languages, which are descended from the Aryan language – from Sanskrit:
Belarusian – garokh, garoshak ; Bulgarian – grah ; Bosnian – grašak ; Macedonian – gršok ; Polish – groszek ; Russian – peas, peashek ; Serbian – grashak ; Slovak – hrach ; Slovenian – grah ; Ukrainian – peas, pea ; Croatian – grašak ; Czech – hrášek.
Given that the pronunciation of the letters g, k, x is actually the same sound, but respectively voiced, semi-voiced/semi-deaf and deaf, very often they can be interchanged in words. That is, “krak” is a word changed over time to “grah” (remains in Bulgarian and Slovenian) or “khragh” (remains in Slovak).
Conclusion: Thus, the city of Kraków (Krak-ov) is the city of Grahov (Grah-ov), i.e. the city of Gorokhov – the city of (King) Gorokh, the city of the god Trajan (Trojan), Traetona – the main Aryan god at a certain time in ancient Aryan history; the original sounding of the city name Grakhov distorted over time and began to sound like “Krakov”.
P.S. By the way, in/in Ukraine there is the city of Gorokhov (Ukr. Gorokhiv ) – a city of district significance, the administrative center of Gorokhov district of Volyn region. It is almost next to Krakow (434 km on the highway, even less directly).
And also – the city of Troy, which was also founded by Aryans who came from the Balkans, also named after the Aryan god Troyan / Traetona.