Carthage: excavations and modern city, hotels, recreation
A unique part of the cultural heritage of Tunisia is Carthage – the oldest settlement, which was founded by the Phoenicians in the IX century BC. The advantageous geographical location of the city allowed it to reach an incredibly high economic and political power. From this article you will learn what Carthage is famous for, how to get there and what to see.
Carthage, an ancient city-state located on the northern coast of Tunisia, was built by the ancient Phoenicians in 814 (825) B.C. Founded as a colony, the city quickly developed politically and economically, helped by its favorable geographical location. Carthage is a suburb of the capital city of Tunis, 14 km from it. It is washed by the waves of the Gulf of Tunis of the Mediterranean Sea. The region described is located in a subtropical climate zone, which is characterized by warm winters with lots of precipitation and very hot, dry summers.
Map of Carthage
January and February are considered the coldest months of winter, with nighttime temperatures dropping as low as +6°C. The average winter temperature is +15 ° C. The largest amount of precipitation falls in the period from October to February. The hottest month is August, the temperature stays at around +27 ° C, but it can go up to +32 ° C. The most favorable time to visit Carthage is from April to October.
Did you know? The name Carthage is translated from Phoenician as “the new city”. The Romans called it Carthago, and the Greeks called it Carhedon.
What is the city famous for?
Modern Carthage is a unique tourist attraction, which attracts visitors with its numerous archaeological sites, dating back to the times of the Roman Empire. The main pride of the city are the ruins of the old city, which was once as mighty and majestic as Rome itself.
What attracts particular attention is the huge amphitheatre that was built in the II century B.C. and used to be the main arena for gladiatorial fights, bullfighting of the first Christians, staging sea battles. Antoninus Pius Baths are no less impressive and popular among tourists, where locals used to spend their leisure time, underwent water procedures and physical exercises. In size and beauty Carthage’s thermae are not inferior to similar baths of Rome.
Another famous sight in the city are the ruins of Roman villas, which at the time of Rome were meant for residence of wealthy citizens. Today, the remaining ruins of the village are listed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site. The current Carthage is also home to the residence of the President of Tunisia, the National Museum and the University of Carthage.
Important: Archaeological excavations in the city are still going on. That is why some of the historical sites are inaccessible to tourists.
The inhabitants of ancient Carthage practiced polytheism. The Phoenicians had their patron gods among which the sun deity Baal-Hammon and the goddess Tinnit were the most important. The locals also worshipped Astarte, Eshmun and Ellisu, to whom they offered sacrifices not only of animals but also, in some cases, of people. Each deity had its own temple where ceremonies were performed. Besides the Phoenician gods, the Carthaginians worshipped some Greek gods, Cora and Demeter. Along with deities, the people of Carthage held heroes in high esteem.
Little is known about the culture of the Carthaginians today. They had no artistic tradition of their own in ceramics and sculpture, their literature was limited to copying others’ ideas and techniques. Today, most of the inhabitants of Carthage practice Islam. About 95% of all believers are Sunni Muslims. However, Islamic, Jewish and Christian communities get along very well together in the region.
Important: All manifestations of religious intolerance are prosecuted by law.
Arabic is the main language of the locals. The second official language is French, which is spoken by most of the inhabitants of Tunisia. Occasionally in tourist areas you can hear English, German or Italian.
The currency of Carthage is the Tunisian dinar (TND), which consists of 1,000 millimeters. Bills of 5, 10 and 20 dinars, and coins of 0.5 and 1 dinar as well as 5, 10, 20, 50 and 100 millimeters are in use. One dinar is approximately $0.7. The city has many specialized points of currency exchange, where each visitor has the opportunity to exchange foreign currency. In many stores and markets you can pay for your purchases with international credit cards or traveler’s checks.
How to get there, transportation
As noted above, Carthage is a suburb of Tunisia, located 14 km from the capital. That’s why in order to get to the ancient city, you need to fly to Tunisia. Then you need to get to the railway station that connects the capital and its suburbs. Get off at the station Tunis – Marin. Tickets for the train will cost mere pennies – only 1 dinar. The train schedule can be found at the Tunis airport. From September to March, the train service runs from 8:30 am to 5:00 pm, and from April to August from 8:00 am to 7:00 pm.
Tourists can reach Carthage by cab. The fare is 10-12 dinars. There is no own public transport in Carthage. You can take a tour of the city by horse-drawn carriage, which costs 10 dinars per round. Cab drivers are considered the main competitors of carriage drivers, who are ready to drive tourists for 80 dinars per day.
The historical value of Carthage itself makes it impossible to build a large number of hotels. A great place in the city where tourists can stay overnight is hotel Villa Didon, which has 20 uniquely designed rooms with full infrastructure. Rooms cost quite a lot and start at 570 dinars. In the northern part of the city you can stay at the hotels Carthrage Hill and Villa Carthage, which offer spacious rooms, delicious cuisine and wide opportunities for outdoor activities.
The price for a room ranges from 250 dinars. More budget accommodation can be found in other suburbs of the capital, such as Hammart, Sidi Bou Said, or check into a hotel in Tunisia. Staying together in a double apartment will cost about $ 40. For a room for two in a three-star hotel in the capital you have to pay about $100.
Did you know? As we know from the history of Carthage, its army consisted of infantry, cavalry, chariots and elephants. The elephants, though large and strong, were cowardly and often ran away from the battlefield.
Carthage is protected by the international organization UNESCO. Today it is a valuable historical site, which conceals many age-old mysteries, archaeological sites and ancient sights. The city has a special historical tourism. Vacationers can witness the unique excavations, which even today are carried out in the central part of the resort.
In addition to historical treasures, tourists have a great opportunity to admire the magnificent scenery, which opens from the observation deck. In the city itself there are many parks and squares, where you can relax with your family and have a good time looking at the fountains. Clean, well-maintained beach areas are available for summer vacationers, where scuba diving lessons, boat trips, etc. are offered.
Excavations and the modern city
At the time of its development, Carthage was a powerful, ancient, influential and densely populated city-state, which was famous for its powerful merchant fleet, riches, and enormous harbor. It had a population of about 1 million people and a territory spanning over 34 kilometers. Creating great competition to Rome, Carthage became an unprofitable neighbor that they wanted to get rid of forever. A century and a half later, Rome managed to level the city completely, leaving only ashes in its place.
It is worth noting that all the structures and remains of buildings that today are called Carthage, were built by the Romans later, on the site of the destroyed city. Modern archaeologists have partially reconstructed the amphitheater and the quarter where the Roman villas were located. Today it is difficult to find a clear boundary between where the ancient Carthage ends and begins more modern.
The city as a whole is a valuable historical and archaeological site. Today it is home to more than 25,000 people. Carthage is the most expensive city of Tunisia, with the most expensive real estate and land. Here are concentrated villas, mansions of officials and businessmen, is the residence of the president.
Excursions: routes, programs, prices
Tour to Carthage is one of the most popular and popular excursions in Tunisia. It is included in all the excursion programs of all European and domestic tour operators. As a rule, it is called “Carthage – Sidi Bou Said – Tunisia”.
Travelers are available in two versions:
- With the first option, guests are taken to the center of Tunis at the end, where they have the opportunity to visit Tunisia’s famous Big Ben and stroll down Habib Bourguiba Avenue. Such walks have no important historical value, but allow tourists to buy gifts and souvenirs in supermarkets in the capital.
- The second option takes travelers to the Bardo Museum at the end of the trip. Such a tour is considered the best solution for those who love history and want to see all the sights of Carthage in one day.
The cost of the tour “Carthage – Sidi Bou Said – Tunisia” may vary depending on the tour operator. On average, a one-day trip will cost from 80 dinars ($57), and the price includes transfers from hotel to hotel, lunch, tickets to museums. Photography in the places you visit is an additional cost.
Did you know? Legends and myths attribute the founding of Carthage to Queen Didon (Elyssa). The first ruler of the city was madly in love with the famous hero Aeneas. After he dumped her, Didon committed suicide. The story of Aeneas and Elissa is a popular subject for various works of fiction from different centuries and authors.
Entertainment and attractions
After archaeologists managed to clear the ruins of ancient Carthage, they found on the site of the former capital of the Phoenicians a typical Roman city with numerous straight streets, aristocratic villas, baths, and an amphitheater.
As noted above, the main attractions are:
- The amphitheater , which is a second-century, five-tiered structure that could once hold 50,000 spectators. Nowadays, just as 2000 years ago, the walls of the theater once a year are filled with spectators who come to the Music Festival;
- baths of Antoninus Pius – the largest thermae, which occupied an area of more than 2 hectares;
One of the most notable artifacts among the ruins of Carthage is considered to be Tofet, an altar-burial that served as a place to perform sacrifices. According to archaeologists, it was here that the Phoenicians sacrificed animals and according to some reports even infants to placate the formidable gods. Confirmation that Tofet served as a sacrificial site is a stele depicting a priest holding the future sacrifice – a small child, by the legs.
Near Tofet is located Oceanographic Museum, whose exhibition consists of models of ancient harbors, fishing schooners, exhibition of sea knots, aquariums with different sea creatures, stuffed animals of the rarest animals of the Mediterranean. Tourists will also be interested in visiting the National Archaeological Museum, the Cathedral of St. Louis, the Hills of Birsa and Jupiter, the cisterns of La Magla.
In addition to historical monuments, modern Carthage offers guests other attractions. In summer, from June to August, the city hosts the annual traditional Music Festival, where famous and novice musicians perform popular works of world classics. Every tourist has an opportunity to have a delicious lunch in the city’s restaurants, take pictures against the background of the amazingly beautiful facade of the Cathedral, take a fascinating tour along Hannibal Street.
Important: the main attractions of Carthage occupy about 6 square kilometers, so you can see them in just one day.
Cuisine and restaurants
Because the land in Carthage has a high historical significance and is very expensive, you will not find a large number of restaurants or cafes here. The small number of gastronomic establishments located in the city offers tourists exotic and traditional Mediterranean cuisine. If you want to spend time in a romantic atmosphere, you can visit Villa Didon, where tourists are provided with a small modern restaurant overlooking the sea, the ruins of the old town and the residence of the president.
The cost of main dishes at the Villa starts at $15. Tunisian cuisine will please most European tourists, because it is similar to the culinary traditions of Europeans. All dishes are based on fish, meat, vegetables, and olive oil. A significant difference is a large number of spices, which locals adore.
Of the traditional dishes the guests are offered:
- chebureks brik (flaky patties filled with tuna and meat);
- Shorba, a soup with chicken, vegetables, chickpeas, and spices.
Carthaginians prefer to drink green tea or coffee. As for alcohol, guests of the city are treated to beer, various wines, including Tunisian wines.
When visiting Carthage, be sure to buy souvenirs related to its history and archaeological excavations. Souvenir stores are mainly located at the fenced sections of the archaeological area of the city. In almost every store you can find “sand roses” – natural formations made of crystals that resemble stone flowers. Also, visitors are offered items made of ceramics and leather, copper utensils, coral and silver jewelry, traditional gold and silver thread embroidery.
Tourists often take back useful souvenirs: olive oil, spices, dates, natural soap and organic cosmetics, sweets, sauces, essential oils. Carthage is a unique ancient city, which delights the guests with its ancient architectural objects and marvelous seascapes. Having survived a lot of wars, new rulers and even complete destruction, the city has not ceased to exist and remains one of the most visited places on our planet.
History of Carthage
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Carthage is an ancient city, the name of which is known probably to everyone. It’s a rare phenomenon in history. Many cities no longer exist, gradually their names, history and meaning have been forgotten. Carthage entered the list of exceptions to this rule.
Carthage is a Phoenician (also called Punic) city-state which existed in ancient times in northern Africa, on the territory of modern Tunisia. The exact date of the foundation of Carthage is 814 BC. It was founded by colonists from the Phoenician city of Tyre headed by Queen Elissa (Didon) who fled Tyre after her brother Pygmalion, king of Tyre, killed her husband Shecheus in order to take possession of his wealth.
Location of Carthage
Carthage was founded on a promontory with outlets to the sea to the north and south. The city’s location made it the leader of maritime trade in the Mediterranean. All ships crossing the sea inevitably passed between Sicily and the Tunisian coast. The massive city walls were 37 kilometers long and in some places as high as 12 meters.
Most of the walls were located on the coast, making the city impregnable from the sea. The city had a huge cemetery, places of worship, markets, a municipality, towers, and a theater. It was divided into four identical residential areas. About the middle of the city stood a high citadel, called the Beersa. It was one of the largest cities in Hellenistic times.
Ships entered the merchant harbor through a narrow passage. Up to 220 ships could be pulled ashore at a time for loading and unloading. Beyond the trading harbor was a military harbor and arsenal.
The population of the city is not known.
Carthage, conveniently located in the center of the Mediterranean Sea, at the crossroads of trade and sea routes, gradually became stronger and richer.
It was originally a small city, not much different from other Phoenician colonies on the shores of the Mediterranean Sea. The city’s economy was based mainly on intermediary trade
The handicrafts were underdeveloped and in terms of their basic technical and aesthetic features practically the same as the Oriental ones.
Farming was absent and there was little land for farming.
The masters of Carthage did not succeed in creating works of art. Their works did not have any specific features different from the general Phoenician.
The Religion of Carthage
The Carthaginians, like the other Mediterranean peoples, represented the universe as divided into three worlds, one above the other. This may be the same world serpent that the Ugaritans called Latana and the ancient Jews called Leviathan.
The earth was thought of as lying between two oceans. The sun rising from the eastern ocean, bypassing the earth, plunged into the western ocean, considered a sea of darkness and the abode of the dead. The souls of the dead could go there in ships or on the backs of dolphins.
The sky was the seat of the Carthaginian gods. Since the Carthaginians were immigrants from the Phoenician city of Tyre, they worshipped the gods of Canaan, but not all of them. And the Canaanite gods in the new soil changed their appearance, absorbing the features of the local gods.
The enemies of Tyre
Only one peculiarity of the new city, which influenced its future fate, stands out: the founders of the city were representatives of the opposition group that was defeated in Tyre. That is why Carthage from the very beginning was not part of the Tyrian power, but took an independent position, although it retained spiritual ties with its metropolis.
The political system of Carthage was originally a monarchy. However, it hardly existed longer than the life of Elissa-Didona, sister of the king of Tyre, who led the resettlement and became queen of the newly founded city. The sources report nothing about the queen’s children, and the context of Justin directly suggests their absence. With the termination of the royal lineage, a republic was established in Carthage.
As the city grew richer, its inhabitants and city authorities increased their land holdings around the city by seizing land or renting it from the local tribes.
Power in Carthage was in the hands of a merchant and artisan oligarchy. The ruling body was the senate, which was in charge of finance, foreign policy, the declaration of war and peace, and the general conduct of war. Executive power was vested in two elected magistrates, the Suffets. Apparently they were senators, and their duties were purely civil, not involving control of the army. Together with the army commanders they were elected by the popular assembly.
In the 7th-7th centuries BC the Carthaginians began an active offensive policy in North Africa.
Carthaginian colonies were founded along the seashore toward the Pillars of Hercules (the Strait of Gibraltar in our view), as well as beyond them on the Atlantic coast. Already by the end of the 7th century BC there were Carthaginian colonies on the Atlantic coast of modern Morocco (such is the Lycke near the current city of Al-Araysh (Laroche). An unnamed settlement (Caria Wall?) has also been found near as-Suveira (Mogador).
The emergence of invading ambitions. The wars of Carthage.
The Carthaginians, led by Malchus, waged war against the Libyans in the mid-6th century B.C. and, apparently as a result of their victory, obtained exemption from the payment of rent for urban land, which they had previously had to pay regularly to one of the local tribes. At the end of the 6th century BC the long struggle with Cyrene, a Greek colony in North Africa, to establish the border between the two states was also completed. The frontier was significantly shifted away from Carthage to the east, toward Cyrene.
During the same centuries, Carthage was also strengthening itself in the Iberian Peninsula, where the Phoenician colonies, led by Gades (now Cadiz), had even before then fought hard with the Tartesses for trade routes to the British Isles, which were rich in tin. Tyre and Carthage supported the people of Gades in every way they could. Having defeated Tartess on land, they subjected it to a blockade and seized some of its territory. In the middle of the seventh century BC, Carthage founded its own colony of Ebess (now Ivisa) in the Balearic Islands, near the coast of Spain. Carthage also seized these islands from Tartess.
In the second half of the seventh century BC the Carthaginians decided to gain a foothold on the peninsula. Gades perceived such a move by Carthage as a threat to its monopoly position in the international trade in non-ferrous metals and offered Carthage stubborn resistance. But the Carthaginians took Gades by storm and destroyed its walls. After that other Phoenician colonies on the Iberian Peninsula undoubtedly also came under Carthaginian rule.
Further Carthaginian advance in the area was halted by the Greek (Phocian) colonization of the Mediterranean coast of the peninsula. Around 600 BC the Phocaeans inflicted a number of serious defeats on the Carthaginian fleet and stopped the spread of Carthaginian influence in Spain. The foundation of the colony on the island of Corsica interrupted for a long time and Carthage-Etruscan connections.
Carthage may well be called a mercantile state, as it was guided in its policy by commercial considerations. Many of its colonies and trading settlements were undoubtedly founded for the purpose of expanding trade.
It is known of some of the expeditions undertaken by the Carthaginian rulers, the reason for which was also the desire for broader trade relations. Thus the treaty concluded by Carthage in 508 BC with the Roman Republic, which had just arisen after the expulsion of the Etruscan kings from Rome, stipulated that Roman ships could not sail to the western part of the sea, but they could use the harbor of Carthage.
In case they were forced to land elsewhere in Punic territory, they asked for official protection from the authorities and, after repairing the ship and replenishing food supplies, sailed immediately. Carthage agreed to recognize Rome’s borders and to respect its people as well as its allies. The Carthaginians made agreements and made concessions if necessary.
They also resorted to force to prevent rivals from entering the waters of the western Mediterranean, which they regarded as their fiefdom, with the exception of the coast of Gaul and the adjoining coasts of Spain and Italy. They also fought piracy. Carthage, did not pay due attention to coinage.
Apparently there were no coins of their own until the 4th century BCE, when silver coins were issued which, if we consider the surviving specimens typical, varied considerably in weight and quality. Perhaps the Carthaginians preferred to use the reliable silver coinage of Athens and other states, and most transactions were made by direct exchange of goods.
Carthage before the Punic Wars
In the 6th century BC the Greeks founded the colony of Massalia and formed an alliance with Tartessos. Initially the Punic were in defeat, but Magon I reformed the army, an alliance was made with the Etruscans and in 537 BC at the Battle of Alalia the Greeks were defeated.
The Carthaginian-Etruscan coalition significantly changed the political situation in the Western Mediterranean. After the battle of Alalia, off the coast of Corsica, the domination of the Greeks (Phocaeans) on the Mediterranean routes was destroyed. Carthage then launched a new attack on Sardinia, where colonies were established on the coast and numerous small Punic settlements in the interior of the island.
The victory at Alalia isolated Tartess politically and militarily, and in the late 30s and early 20s of the 6th century BC the Carthaginian invaders literally wiped out Tartess, so that searches by archaeologists trying to locate its location have so far not yielded satisfactory results.
Trade remained the main source of wealth for Carthage. Carthaginian merchants traded in Egypt, Italy, Spain, the Black Sea and the Red Sea – and agriculture, based on the extensive use of slave labor.
There was a regulation of trade – Carthage sought to monopolize the turnover of goods; to this end all subjects were obliged to trade only through the mediation of Carthaginian merchants. During the Greco-Persian wars Carthage was in alliance with Persia, together with the Etruscans an attempt was made to take complete control of Sicily. But after the defeat at the Battle of Guimera (480 BC) by a coalition of Greek city-states, the struggle was suspended for several decades.
The main adversary of the Punians was Syracuse, and the war continued at intervals of nearly a hundred years (394-306 B.C.) and ended with an almost complete conquest of Sicily by the Punians.
Rome goes to Carthage
In the third century B.C., Carthage’s interests came into conflict with a strengthened Roman republic. Relations began to deteriorate. This first manifested itself in the final phase of Rome’s war with Tarentum. But in 264 B.C. the First Punic War began. It was fought mainly in Sicily and on the sea. The Romans captured Sicily, but here affected the almost total absence of the Roman fleet. Only by 260 BC did the Romans establish a fleet and use boarding tactics to win a naval victory at Cape Mila.
In 256 B.C. the Romans moved the fighting to Africa, defeating the fleet and then the land army of the Carthaginians. But Consul Attilius Regulus did not use the advantage gained, and a year later the Punic army under the command of the Spartan mercenary Xanthippus defeated the Romans completely. Only in 251 BC at the battle of Panorma (Sicily) did the Romans win a major victory, capturing 120 elephants. Two years later the Carthaginians won a major naval victory and there was a lull.
In 247 BC the commander in chief of Carthage became Gamilcar Barca, thanks to his outstanding abilities success in Sicily began to lean toward the Punic, but in 241 BC Rome, having gathered its forces, was able to put a new fleet and army. Carthage could no longer withstand them and after the defeat was forced to make peace, ceding Sicily to Rome, and pay a contribution of 3200 talents for 10 years. After his defeat, Hamilcar resigned and power passed to his political opponents, led by Gannon .
Ineffective governance led to a strengthening of the democratic opposition, led by Hamilcar. The people’s assembly gave him the power of commander in chief. In 236 BC, after conquering the entire African coast, he moved the fighting to Spain.
For nine years he fought there until he fell in battle. After his death his son-in-law Hasdrubal was chosen as commander-in-chief of the army. Within 16 years most of Spain was conquered and firmly tied to the metropolis. The silver mines brought in very large revenues, and a strong army was built up in battle. Overall Carthage became much stronger than it had been even before the loss of Sicily.
After Hasdrubal died, the army chose Hannibal, son of Hamilcarus, as commander-in-chief. All of his children-Magon, Hasdrubal, and Hannibal-had been brought up in a spirit of hatred of Rome, so once he gained control of the army, Hannibal began looking for an excuse for war. In 218 BC he captured Sagunt – a Spanish city and ally of Rome – the war began.
Unexpectedly for the enemy, Hannibal led his army around the Alps and into Italian territory. There he won a series of victories – at Ticino, Trebia, and Lake Trasimene. In Rome, appointed dictator, but in 216 BC Hannibal defeated the Romans at the town of Cannes, which resulted in the transition to the side of Carthage, a large part of Italy, and the second most important city – Capua.
With the death of Hannibal’s brother Hasdrubal, who had led him significant reinforcements, the position of Carthage became very difficult.
Rome soon responded by fighting in Africa. Concluding an alliance with Massinissa, king of the Numidians, Scipio inflicted a series of defeats on the Puni. Hannibal was summoned to his homeland. In 202 BC at the Battle of Zama, commanding a poorly trained army, he was defeated, and the Carthaginians decided to make peace.
Under its terms they were forced to give Rome Spain and all the islands, keep only 10 warships and pay 10,000 talents of contribution. Furthermore, they were not allowed to go to war with anyone without Rome’s permission.
After the war ended, Hannibal’s enemies Gannon, Gisgon, and Gasdrubal Gad, the heads of the aristocratic parties, tried to have Hannibal condemned, but, supported by the population, he was able to hold on to power. In 196 B.C. Rome defeated Macedonia, which had been an ally of Carthage, in a war.
The Fall of Carthage
Even after losing two wars, Carthage managed to recover quickly and soon became one of the richest cities again. In Rome, trade had long been a significant branch of the economy; Carthage’s competition hindered its development. Great concern was also caused by its rapid recovery. The Numidian king Massinissa constantly attacked Carthaginian possessions; realizing that Rome always supported Carthaginian opponents, he turned to direct invasions.
All complaints of the Carthaginians were ignored and decided in favor of Numidia. Finally the Puni were forced to give him a direct military rebuke. Rome immediately filed a complaint for fighting without permission. A Roman army arrived at Carthage. The frightened Carthaginians asked for peace, Consul Lucius Censorin demanded that all weapons be given up, then demanded that Carthage be destroyed and that a new city be founded away from the sea.
After asking for a month to deliberate, the Puni prepared for war. Thus began the Third Punic War . The city was fortified, so it was possible to capture it only after 3 years of difficult siege and heavy fighting. Carthage was completely destroyed, of its 500,000 inhabitants 50,000 were taken prisoner and became slaves. Carthage’s literature was destroyed, with the exception of a treatise on agriculture written by Magon. A Roman province was established in Carthage, ruled by a governor from Utica.
What Remains of Carthage
Carthage was very unprofitable to many. Its position allowed it to control the waters between Africa and Sicily, which prevented foreign ships from sailing further west.
Compared with many famous cities of antiquity, Punic Carthage is not so rich in finds, because in 146 BC the Romans methodically destroyed the city. And then created in its place their own, Roman Carthage, founded in the same place in 44 BC. In Roman Carthage there was intensive construction, which destroyed the traces of the great city. But the place is not empty even today, Carthage exists.