The mounds of Cahokia are a mystery of the Mississippian culture.
Covering over 2,000 acres, Cahokia is the only Native American prehistoric town north of Mexico and the largest archaeological site of the famous Mississippian culture. Cahokia consists of 109 mounds of North American Indians known as the Mound Builders, but at the same time it remains a great mystery how they managed to build such huge, complex mounds. Cahokia is famous for its huge mounds, large clay structures. This city was inhabited from about 700 to 1400 AD by ancient peoples. In the beginning there were only a few thousand of them, but later the population of Cahokia grew to tens of thousands.
At the height of the Cahokian culture (1100 to 1200 AD) the city covered nearly six square miles and had a population of 20,000. Buildings were built in rows around spacious squares. Food came to the city from the small villages around, where farming and cattle raising were practiced. The Cahokians traded with other tribes as far as Minnesota. The town’s real name is unknown and the inhabitants apparently did not use writing. The name Cahokia is derived from a tribe, unrelated to this civilization, which was present in the area when the first French explorers arrived (late 17th century).
The ancient Cahokia Indians built more than 120 earthen mounds. Some of the mounds have not survived to this day as they were destroyed by later tribes. The Cahokia mound complex is an amazing sight. Some of the mounds are no more than a few meters in height, and some are over 30 meters high. More than 50 million cubic feet of earth was moved to build these mounds, huge pits still remain in some places. The Indians carried the soil on their backs, dragging large, heavy baskets.
Three types of mounds were used, the most common of which were platform-shaped – used as sites for political and religious ceremonies and mass gatherings. Canonical mounds (mounds) were created for funerals or to mark important sites.
In the center of the historic site is the largest mound called Monk’s Mound. It is the largest prehistoric clay mound in North America. The mound is 1,000 feet long and 800 feet wide. Monk’s Mound consists of four terraces, each added at different times. Approximately 22 million cubic feet of earth was used to build this mound between 900 and 1200. The mound was named after the French monks who lived nearby in the 1800s. The Monks’ Mound is the most likely structure where the ruler of Cahokia lived and where important ceremonies were held. The mound has been significantly damaged by man over the years, so the original size of the mound is difficult to determine.
The Monk’s Mound and the center of the city were surrounded by a two-mile-long wall with guard towers every 70 feet. The wall was built not only for protection, but also as a social barrier between different segments of society, separating the elite from the common people. Several sections of the Cahokia palisade have now been restored.
Archaeologists have unearthed five round wooden devices that served the Cahokia Indians as solar calendars. These calendars, made of evenly spaced wooden logs, are called Woodhenge. The devices attest to the high level of development of the Cahokia Indians. The most interesting and mysterious discovery associated with the mounds of Cahokia is Mound 72. Here archaeologists found the bodies of nearly 300 people, mostly young women, most likely sacrificed. Nearby was another grave where the ruler was buried. His body lay in a tomb of 20,000 sea shells, the age of the ruler was 40-45 years old. It is believed that those buried next to him were sacrificed to serve him in his next life. The mound was erected around 950-1000 AD.
The gradual decline in the population of Cahokia began after 1200, and two centuries later the site was deserted. The fate of the Cahokian tribes remains unknown; scholars believe they were forced to leave by climate change and drought due to heavy deforestation. No legends, accounts or mentions of the great Cahokia have survived.
The mounds of Cahokia were designated a National Historic Landmark in 1964 and a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1982. The mounds are located near Collinsville, Illinois.
I specifically went to the comments to write about the meaninglessness of acres, miles, and pounds in the Russian-language article, and I was already beaten.
Justice in the Wild West.
We don’t know if it was real or if it was one of the myths created by the people who surrounded James’ image.
I don’t know the source.
Operation Buster-Jungle. Atomic Testing.
Why is America sometimes called Uncle Sam?
On September 7, 1813, a small Troy Post newspaper printed an article that first told the story of how the acronym U.S. came to stand for Uncle Sam, or Uncle Sam. According to this document, the character who embodied the United States was given life by Samuel Wilson, a meat merchant from New York, who supplied the American army with provisions during the Anglo-American War of 1812. Legend has it that the soldiers nicknamed Wilson’s corned beef “Uncle Sam’s stuff” because of the U.S. marking on the barrels, a nickname Wilson himself was known by among his fellow countrymen and even outside the state.
Good afternoon, cats and catanesses! Today I’m going to tell you the story of how a child prodigy who entered Harvard at 16 can go from being one of the most famous terrorists in the history of the world. Genius, mathematician, hermit, Unabomber. Meet Theodore Kaczynski.
If that’s not what a mad scientist looks like, then what is he supposed to look like?!
He was born into a family of Polish immigrants on May 22, 1942. From an early age, Teddy grew up a sickly and withdrawn child who did not get along particularly well with his peers. For a time, he even attended a special club for children with socialization difficulties. However, his lack of communication skills was more than compensated by his propensity to learn. IQ test, which is traditionally conducted in American schools at the end of the 5th grade, showed a truly amazing result – as much as 167 points (average score of 100). The main passion of the young Kaczynski was mathematics, which seemed to the future terrorist amazingly easy. So he managed to learn the eleventh-grade course by only fifteen years old, and all his free time Ted devoted to the solution of differential equations.
It became clear that the boy had a great future, so in 1958 he was invited to Harvard, where he graduated four years later. There is evidence that during his studies Kaczynski became a victim of a psychological experiment conducted by the famous psychologist Henry Murray. The purpose of the experiment was to study the effect of stress on the human psyche. So, each subject wrote a large essay in which he stated his vision of reality, after which a group of people came into the room and began to insult the student. Everything that happened was recorded on camera and then analyzed by the professor. As it is easy to guess, such scientific research did not help the battered and insecure Theodore, remaining in the boy’s subconscious for the rest of his life.
The University of Michigan was the scholar’s next resting place, where Theodore earned his doctorate in mathematics. Kaczynski’s mentors called him one of the 10 smartest mathematicians in U.S. history and even facilitated the allocation of a large grant to the prodigy. The next 3 years Ted taught students, along the way he published scientific articles, but in 1967 he suddenly decided to change the institution, concluding a contract with UC Berkeley, considered the best public schools in the world. But even there he was not popular. Students often wrote complaints about the young professor, who lectured from the sheet and refused to answer any questions. Much of this was the reason for Kaczynski’s resignation from teaching in 1969, which came as a real surprise to the whole of Berkeley’s top brass.
Theodore at the time of teaching at UCLA
That same year, 1969, Theodore, like any self-respecting brilliant scientist,
was going off the deep end. the need to find new sources of inspiration arises. He acquires a small cabin in a wooded area of Montana, where he begins to lead an openly reclusive life. There he researches various literature on survival in the wilderness, hunts, and often reflects on philosophical themes. Many of his musings he writes down on paper and even maintains an active correspondence with his younger brother David (remember, this is important). Local residents odd, unfriendly and foul-smelling neighbor rather amuses than frightens. After all, who cares what he does in his doghouse without light and water, as long as he doesn’t disturb those around him.
Theodore in the background of his home
In the same period of his life, Kaczynski’s worldview was finally formed, and it consisted in the following:
“It is necessary to develop and spread an ideology that will rise up against technology and industrial society if and when the system weakens sufficiently. Moreover, such an ideology will help to ensure that if and when industrial society collapses, its remnants will be destroyed irretrievably, so that the system cannot recover. Factories must be destroyed, technical books burned, and so on.”
As you can understand, Theodore
gone was an example of a man held hostage by his genius, and that would have been all right, but it had tragic consequences. The fact is that in 1978, the federal authorities intended to build a highway near Kaczynski’s house, which finally put the scientist on the path of war with the state. He began to study various literature related to the manufacture of explosives and anything that could do the hated “system” any harm at all.
The first terrorist attack Theodore carried out was the mailing of a bomb intended for a materials engineering professor who taught at a private research university in the northern Chicago suburbs. The box containing the bomb and the professor’s home address was found in the university parking lot. The address, however, while correct, was not written in the professor’s handwriting. The police officer who arrived on the call carelessly decided to open the suspicious box, after which the bomb detonated and almost left the officer without an arm.
The next bomb in 1979 was aboard a flight from Chicago to Washington, D.C., but the timing mechanism was flawed, so the bomb did not explode in flight, but only smoke, forcing the crew to make an emergency landing. At least 20 passengers died of carbon monoxide poisoning. At the same time, the FBI became interested in the Unabomber case and launched its own investigation. The bomber was rewarded with $1 million dead U.S. Presidents for information about the alleged bomber, but the bombs kept on arriving.
Poster promising the reward and telling the story of the terrorist attacks that took place
In all, Kaczynski was able to send 16 bombs between 1979 and 1995. At least three people were victims of the Unabomber, and two dozen others were seriously injured. Among them was even Percy Wood, president of United Airlines. By the mid-1990s, however, simple terrorism was boring Theodore, and he decided to send out his manifesto to future victims, in which he promises to stop the terrorist attacks if the essay is printed in a major publication. The authorities decided not to play with the terrorist, so Theodore’s essay was published, not just anywhere, but in The New York Times and the Washington Post. In order not to retell its content, I suggest everyone who is interested to find it on the Internet. Believe me, it will not be too difficult.
Immediately after the manifesto was published, Theodore’s younger brother David noticed a striking similarity between the language in which it was written and his brother’s personal letters. The fact is that despite being unsociable, Teddy had warm feelings for his younger brother and even frequently discussed with him the idea that modern industrialization was harming man by robbing him of his freedoms. David was faced with the difficult choice of stopping his older brother or leaving it at that, covering for a relative. Despite the fact that for the capture of Theodore promised a handsome sum, it was decided to pass on his brother’s letters to the FBI anonymously, but somewhere David still miscalculated. Two days later, agents arrived at his house and interrogated him. David handed the feds all of his brother’s original letters, and a short time later, the court issued a search warrant for Teddy’s house.
On April 3, 1996, a raid team broke into the elder Kaczynski’s cabin, catching him off guard. Another assembled bomb and a copy of his manifesto were found on his desk. As you have already understood, there was no point in denying it.
The news of the Unabomber’s capture was on every front page
Litigation began, during which Theodore repeatedly pleaded guilty, and then began to deny his guilt. All sorts of versions of what happened were explored, including those related to the fact that Kaczynski was not working alone. As a result of all the hearings, Theodor Kaczynski was found guilty on all charges, receiving eight life sentences without the right to parole. His personal belongings, with the exception of bomb-making schemes, were sold at auction, the proceeds of which went to compensate the victims of the attacks. As for his younger brother Theodore’s award, he turned down the money, sending it to a fund to help people affected by the actions of his older brother.
Despite his imprisonment, the Unabomber continues to write various essays on the subject of anti-technical revolutions. His latest work is called Anti-Tech Revolution: Why and How and dates back to 2020. The funny thing is that Kaczynski’s actions have galvanized many people into action. Thus, back in 1996, an organization appeared in the U.S. that advocated nominating Theodore to the presidency. Their slogan was the phrase “He will definitely not serve. One more curious fact is that the Norwegian terrorist Andreas Breivik copied a part of Kaczynski’s manifesto, concerning the confrontation with the “left,” when he wrote his own.
That’s the story. Share your opinions in the comments. And I bid you farewell.
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