City of Adelaide, Australia
The capital of South Australia, Adelaide is a thriving, civilized and peaceful city of about 1.3 million people. It is divided into two parts, Adelaide and North Adelaide, by the Torrance River. The city is the gateway to Australia’s major wine regions. Diverse landscapes, with an abundance of parklands, rolling hills, and coastlines are juxtaposed with many historic buildings. The city center is well planned and is a succession of streets and squares. The main street of King William runs from north to south of the city, crossing Victoria Square, which is located in the heart of the city.
Adelaide is a warm and sunny city with low rainfall and a moderate Mediterranean climate. Summers are hot, during which you can have a great time relaxing on the beautiful beaches and enjoying the sunsets. Winters are mild with infrequent rain. Spring and fall are pleasant seasons in Adelaide, with moderate day and night temperatures.
Adelaide Airport is only 7 km from the city center. Buses take tourists into the city every 15 minutes. Adelaide Central Bus Station serves regional routes. The station is located on Franklin Street, near Adelaide’s central market.
History of Adelaide’s development
Before Europeans arrived in what is now Adelaide, the area was inhabited by the Kaurna tribe. Native Australians called the area Tandania, which means “red kangaroo.” In the early thirties of the nineteenth century, the British began to settle the area. The plan was for the new colony in South Australia to be populated by free men, not convicts. General William Lightfoot located the new colony’s capital in December 1836. Adelaide was named for the wife of King George IV.
The first governor of the new colony was Captain John Hindmarsh, who arrived here on December 28, 1838. The first settlers were British and Irish, with Germans settling in and around Adelaide in the mid-19th century. It was Australia’s first city. The first mayor of Adelaide was James Hurtle Fisher.
The Adelaide Royal Infirmary was founded in 1840, at which time there were about two thousand people living in the capital. A decade later, the population reached 14,000, and at the turn of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, there were 162,000 people. Many famous buildings were erected in Adelaide in the 19th century. The symbolic first stone of the Church of the Holy Trinity was laid in 1838. Government House was completed in 1855, and St. Francis Xavier’s Cathedral was erected in 1858. The Henry Ayers House was built in 1846. It was where he lived from 1855 to 1897. The town hall appeared in 1866. The Adelaide post office was built in five years and opened on May 6, 1872. It opened in 1872. St. Peter’s Cathedral was consecrated in 1878. The Edmund Wright House was built in 1878. The University of Adelaide was founded in 1874, and the South Australian Art Gallery appeared in 1881. The famous botanical garden was founded in 1857. Adelaide was gasified in 1863, and electrification came by the turn of the century.
In the twentieth century Adelaide came into being:
- Monument to Scottish continental explorer John MacDuall Stuart (1904);
- Monument to town planner William Light (1906);
- Adelaide Airport (1921);
- war memorial (1931);
- east wing of Parliament House (1939);
- Flinders University (1966);
- Festival Center (1980).
Attractions in Adelaide
Adelaide is a city with a well-developed transport infrastructure. It is easy to get around on foot, by bicycle, on dedicated lanes or by public transport. Adelaide is home to many attractions, both within and outside the city limits.
South Australian Maritime Museum
The museum, located within walking distance of the Port Adelaide train station and bus stops, is open daily except Good Friday and Christmas. The Maritime Museum has over 20,000 exhibits with their own unique history. The South Australian Maritime Museum is internationally renowned. It represents the oldest maritime collection in Australia.
Adelaide Harbour Lighthouse
A visit to the lighthouse, the iconic port of Adelaide, is a special treat. It stands at the end of the shopping street, at the point where the city meets the river. Visitors can climb the seventy-four steps and enjoy views of the port, coast and city.
The lighthouse was commissioned in 1869. It was made in England from iron plates and delivered in disassembled form. It replaced a signal ship moored at the mouth of the Port River as a landmark for ships sailing into the harbor. The lighthouse was dismantled and moved in 1901. The iron structure was reassembled on South Neptune Island with a new lantern and served there until 1985. In 1986 it was restored and reassembled in its present location.
Henry Ayers House Museum.
Sir Henry Ayers’ house, where he lived from 1855 to 1897, has been restored by the National Trust of South Australia. This magnificent colonial mansion is open to visitors daily except Mondays. Inside you can see restored interiors, historic costume, silver, and artwork. The house is not only the last surviving mansion of its era on the south side, but also provides a glimpse into the life of a 19th-century middle-class family.
Sir Henry Ayers came from England as a young man and became South Australia’s Prime Minister and Director of Copper seven times. He commissioned the remodeling of the nine-room brick house, the forty-room mansion we see today.
South Australian Museum.
The museum is one of the most visited museums in Australia and boasts not only collections of national but also international importance. There are more than four million exhibits here, an important part of the country’s national heritage.
The museum’s biological collections cover a wide range of fauna, from parasites to whales. More than three million animal specimens have been collected over 150 years. It also houses the largest and most comprehensive collection of ethnographic materials, including items from the Pacific, Asia, Africa and the Americas. The heritage collections of Papua and New Guinea and other Pacific regions are particularly good.
The Australian Polar collection is represented by items associated with the names of Sir Douglas Mawson (1882-1958), George Wilkinson, who were either born or worked in South Australia.
The Archaeological Collection contains artifacts from Australia’s most significant excavations. The mineral collection consists of 32,000 specimens, including stones and meteorites from all over the world. The strength of this collection is undoubtedly the specimens from the South Australian localities that are famous for their copper mines.
South Australian Art Gallery
The gallery features 38,000 paintings, sculptures, drawings, photographs and pieces of furniture from Australia, Europe, North America and Asia.
On which oceanfront is Adelaide, Australia?
Adelaide is the capital and largest metropolitan area in the state of South Australia. It has a population of more than 1,200,000 people.
It is located on the Adelaide Plains, on the coast of the Gulf of St. Vincent, which has access to the Indian Ocean. To the south of the city are the Fleurieu Peninsula and the small mountain range of Mount Lofty.
The history of Adelaide’s founding is quite interesting. It was the only English settlement on the mainland, virtually independent of the British Empire, a kind of center of civil and political freedoms. Dreamers, freethinkers, philosophers, and progressive politicians from all over the continent flocked here.
The founder of the settlement – a direct successor to the free cities of Europe – is considered to be Colonel Light, on whose orders the area began to be built rapidly in the second half of the 1830s. Seen from above, Adelaide’s broad streets and large squares form a makeshift grid, with the city center completely surrounded by parks and gardens.
From the coast to the hills, which bear the same name as the settlement, Adelaide stretches for 20 km. The city is bordered on the north by Gowler and on the south by Sellicks Beach, the distance between them being about 85 km. The total area of the metropolis is almost 900 km2 . Adelaide’s residential areas rise 50 meters above sea level. The most famous natural attraction in the vicinity is Mount Lofty, which is more than 700 m high. This peak is the highest in this region of Australia.
Before European settlement, the town was a bushy area with low shrubs and wetlands along the coast. This made construction a bit of a nuisance. The major rivers Torrance and Onkaparinga flow nearby, but they cannot fully supply Adelaide’s growing population with fresh water. Most of it comes from the large reservoirs of the Happie Valley and Mount Bold.
What time is it and the weather in the city
The time in Adelaide is quite different from ours: it is in the time zone UTC +9.3 (UTC +10.3 in summer time). The locality is considered the driest of all the major cities on the mainland. The local climate is of the Mediterranean type, so most of the rain falls during the winter months. In the summer, however, you can expect weeks of rain, and it only lasts for a short time. June is considered the wettest month, with an average of 70-90 mm of precipitation.
In winter, the weather remains quite warm with average monthly temperatures of 11-12 ° C. Frosts are extremely rare and snowfall is infrequent, mostly on the slopes of the Adelaide Hills.
In summer the average temperature is +21-29 ° C, but even then the water in the ocean warms up badly because of the cold currents that wash the southern part of the mainland. However, you can still swim in the bays and coves, but only from December to February. These are the best months for beach holidays and city tours.
At first glance, the city looks like a typical European or American metropolis with numerous high-rise buildings and futuristic skyscrapers in Art Nouveau style. However, if you look at pictures of residential areas of Adelaide, it becomes clear that most of the settlement is occupied by one-and two-storey buildings – the private property of local residents. They all look very beautiful, well-groomed and neat, so even a simple walk through the city quarter will bring pleasure to the tourist.
And if you want to get a closer look at the local architecture and cultural heritage of Adelaideans, you’re in for a treat:
Cleland National Park.
Explore the natural vegetation in Cleland National Park. In Cleland, a ticket for an adult costs 25 AUD and for a child from 4 to 15 years old it costs 12 AUD. You can also save money and buy a general ticket for the whole family for 4 people for 56 AUD. The park offers exciting night tours, which should be booked individually. The reserve is home to unique Australian fauna such as the Tasmanian devil, a variety of reptiles and even koalas, which can be hand-fed at certain hours. Tours of Cleland are available all year round, from 9 a.m. to 5 p.m.
Belair National Park
Go here to see an authentic Australian bush, carved over much of the continent, and small lakes. Near them you can relax after climbing the steep mountain trail to the Adelaide Hills. It takes no more than 25 minutes to get from the city center to the park. The park is open from 8 a.m. to 9 p.m. in summer and from 8 a.m. to 7 p.m. in winter. Entrance to Belair is free.
There are three in the city: the Central Botanical Garden, the Wittung Botanical Garden, and the Mount Lofty Botanical Garden. Central Botanic Garden was founded around the middle of the XIX century and is of interest to fans of flora because of the many ancient plants, planted here nearly 200 years ago. Many of them are unusual for Australian ecosystems and were brought here from all over the world (birch trees from Russia, for example). The Rose Garden and the Mediterranean-style Water Garden are both noteworthy. The most striking feature of the latter is the lotuses that bloom almost the whole year round. Admission to the garden is free. Wittunga Garden is the most complete collection of unique Australian and South African flora. The garden on Mount Lofty’s eastern slope is divided into seven climate zones. Each zone contains trees and shrubs typical of a particular geographic region of the planet: pines and deciduous trees, ferns, azaleas, rhododendrons, exotic flowers and many others.
The highlight of the Central Botanic Gardens is Australia’s first glass-walled greenhouse, erected in the late 1860s purely for the cultivation of the giant water lily. That’s when the House of Palms also appeared here, impressive not only for its collection of savannah plants but also for its unusual Victorian appearance.
South Australian Art Gallery
The most unusual examples of art from Europe and Asia, as well as the tribes of local aborigines, are on display here. It is worth visiting the museum because of its huge collection of paintings by famous English painters of the 18th and 19th centuries, which researchers believe to be the most complete outside Britain. Paintings and engravings by Titian, Rembrandt, Dürer, Gainsborough, Goya, Van Dyck and many others are among the most valuable exhibits. The gallery also features sculptures, ceramics, photographs, clothing and furnishings from past eras. Admission to the museum, which is open from 10 a.m. to 5 p.m., is free.
This zoo functions on a non-profit basis, so you do not have to pay for admission. On the area of 10 hectares there are more than 300 representatives of fauna from all over the world. Among them are such rare and endangered species as the Sumatran tiger. All animals are placed in the conditions, closest to their natural habitat. Here you will not see cages with bars: they are replaced by glass barriers or natural barriers like a large pond with a waterfall or artificial rocks.
Not only explore the history and production of the drink in Australia, but also get to sample a variety of wines.
The outside of the center is impressive in the shape of a box with bottles and almost entirely enveloped in vines.
South Australian Museum
The institution houses the largest paleontological collection in the state, including extinct animal skeletons, fossils, meteorite remnants, talented artwork by Aboriginal artists, and artifacts that tell the story of Oceania and Papua New Guinea tribes. Admission to the museum is free.
Tandania Center for Aboriginal Cultural Studies
Here you’ll find out how life was lived by the indigenous tribes of Australia long before Adelaide was built. There are displays of paintings by Indigenous mainland artists and regular Aboriginal performances, including ritual dances and traditional music. The center has a souvenir shop, where tourists are offered handicrafts of local craftsmen, and a cafe. You can enjoy the unusual dishes of indigenous cuisine there.
There are regular excursions from Adelaide. The island, located 100 km from the city, is mostly inhabited by small kangaroos and sea lions. There are also the oldest apiaries in the world.
From October to April you can go on a water cruise on the Murray River, on which the real vintage ships run.
The best way to get to town
There are two ways to get to the city:
- By South Australian Railways train. There are regular train services between Adelaide and Perth, Sydney, Darwin and Melbourne.
- By plane. The city’s international airport is located about 10 kilometers from its center. Qantas, Malaysia Airlines and Singapore Airlines regularly land here, but you’ll need to make a connection in Kuala Lumpur or Singapore. A shuttle bus runs every 30 minutes from the airport to Adelaide itself. It stops at the entrance to the lounge. The ticket costs about 10 AUD and the journey will take about 25 minutes. A cheaper way is the city bus, which runs every 15 minutes. It costs 4.4 AUD. If you are very tired and want to get to your hotel faster, order a cab for 16 AUD – 20 AUD.
Adelaide is one of the most beautiful cities in the south of the continent and you will have a long and memorable tour.