Three bridges in St. Petersburg: Malo-Konyuzhny, Teatralny and Lozhny – Three bridges of the city (Triple Bridge over the Moika River and the Griboyedov Canal)
Three bridges (Three Bridges or Triple Bridge, also Trikolenny Bridge or Triharkov Bridge) are the unofficial names of the bridge composition in downtown St. Petersburg, which connects the three islands: Spassky, 1st Admiralteysky and Kazansky.
Three-bridge is a unique bridge composition of St. Petersburg, which includes two bridges – the Theater Bridge and the Malo-Konyushenny Bridge, as well as False Bridge (or False Bridge), which is not a bridge in the literal sense and represents a Pedestrian (Land) bridge-dam.
The Malo-Konyuchenniy bridge spans the Moyka River at the point where the Griboyedov Canal flows out of it. In turn, the Theatrical Bridge is across the Griboyedov Canal in the place where it flows out of the Moika River. The Land Dam Bridge is adjacent to the Theatrical Bridge, being an inseparable part of it.
View of the Malo-Konyuchenniy Bridge (right in photo) and Teatralny Bridge (left in photo)
View of the Theatrical (right on the photo) and False Bridge (left on the photo) from the Novo-Konyushenny Bridge over the Griboyedov Canal
All three bridges are arches and were built by the engineers W. von Tretter and E. Adam and opened in 1832.
Decorative design of the bridges is identical and made in the style of late classicism. The decor is dominated by the elements of relief cast-iron plant ornamentation.
The cast-iron railings of the bridges are artistic castings, with ornaments consisting of darts, against which the heads of jellyfish alternate.
Each of the bridges is decorated with “gilded” circular torch lights.
The colors of the bridges are green with gold.
Little Stallion Bridge is 42.8 meters long and 20 meters wide.
Bridge is one-span arched. Span structure cast-iron, assembled from 8 arches with 7 tubes in each.
Bridge abutments are massive stone on pile foundations, lined with granite.
The bridge is 23 meters long and 15.5 meters wide.
The bridge is one-span arched. Span structure cast-iron, assembled from cast-iron pipes, bolted together.
Bridge abutments are massive stone on pile foundations, lined with granite.
Nearby Trekhmostey, on the Moika Embankment, rises a historical building – the House of Adamini, which was built in 1823-1827 for the merchant Antonov, designed by the Russian architect and engineer of Swiss origin Domenico Adamini.
After the merchant Antonov the building is sometimes called House of Antonov, while the generally accepted name is House of Adamini, which the building received from his architect.
Address of the Adamini house: Moika embankment, 1 / Aptekarsky Lane, 8 / Marsovo Pole, 7.
History of the Three Bridges of St. Petersburg
The first wooden bridge, located just upstream of the Moika River from today’s Trekhmosteya, was built in the first quarter of the 18th century. In 1738 it was called Krasny (Red), because in the alignment of the bridge there was a Krasny channel, dug between the Moika and the Big Neva to dry the area in the 1710s and filled in the 1780s. Then the bridge was called “Tsaritsynsky” after the Tsaritsyn Meadow (now Mars Field) and “Theatrical” after the nearby “Free Russian Theater”. In 1828 the bridge was dismantled in connection with the plan to build the “Three bridges”.
After the demolition of the bridge upstream of the Moika River the 2nd Sadovoy Bridge was built, and just below it the Triple Bridge was constructed.
The design of the new cast-iron bridges of Tryohmostey was developed in 1807-1829. According to one of the projects, the architect V.I. Geste and engineer E.A. Adam proposed to build separate bridges, while architects A.C. Moduy and V.I. Beretti, engineers A.A. Betancourt, P.P. Basen, W.C. Tretter and M.G. Destrem proposed another idea – to combine the bridges into one group (this very project was accepted).
On June 8, 1829, under the supervision of engineer Wilhelm von Tretter and the governor-general of St. Petersburg, P.V. Golenischev-Kutuzov, the construction of the bridges began. On January 8, 1832, three bridges were taken into service.
After the revolution of 1917, many of the decorative elements of the bridges were lost or partially damaged.
After that was carried out a large-scale reconstruction of the Three Bridges, and in 1952-1953 on the project of A.L. Rotach restored torches, lanterns and fence grids.
In 1999, according to the design of engineer BN Brudno was carried out reconstruction of the bridge ensemble. Then all three bridges were pedestrian, and the road surface was replaced by stone.
Later the bridges were also subjected to restoration and repair work.
In addition to the Three Bridges, St. Petersburg has the legendary Semimostey, which consists of an ensemble of bridges, is a unique panorama of the city, and is believed to grant the most cherished wishes. Learn more about Semimostie, its bridges, and how to make a wish…
Co-ordinates of Tricity: 59°56’29.0 “N 30°19’44.0 “E (59.941389, 30.328889).
The nearest metro stationsAmiralteyskaya”, “Nevsky Prospect”, “Gostiny Dvor”.
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Famous Bridges of St. Petersburg. The Triple Bridge
The Triple Bridge – the informal name of the unique bridge composition, which connects three islands: Spassky, 1st Admiralteysky and Kazansky in the Central district of St. Petersburg. The ensemble of the Triple Bridge is unique in world practice and belongs to the masterpieces of bridge architecture.
The Triple Bridge is located at the junction of the Griboyedov Canal and the Moika River. It consists of the Little Konyushenny Bridge, the Theater Bridge and the land bridge-damba between the two rivers (sometimes called the Pedestrian Bridge, and since the end of the XX century began to appear called False Bridge or False Bridge. Visually, all three bridges converge to one point.
The Theater Bridge (formerly Pervo-Konyuchenny) is named after the wooden theater next to it, on the Great Meadow (now Mars Field).
The lantern of the Theater Bridge
The theater itself, which was built in 1770 and was known as the Theater on Tsaritsyny Meadow, existed until 1797, when its building was demolished because it hindered the parades on the meadow.
The Malo-Konyushenny Bridge was named after the Main Imperial Stables, located nearby, on Konyushennaya Square. It was named Small Stable Bridge, because at the time of its construction there was already a First Stable Bridge.
Both bridges have one span each, covered with cast-iron arches of tubing. The arch of the false Pedestrian Bridge adjoins the Theatrical Bridge from the side of the Main Imperial Stables.
Having the same width (about 15,6 m. in the middle) Theatrical Bridge and the Small bridge differ noticeably in length: 18 m and 23 m respectively. At the ends, the Malo-Konyushenniy expands to 19 m.
All three bridges have the same torches and cast-iron railings, decorated in the style of late classicism. The decor is dominated by the elements of floral ornamentation.
The grating of the fence is formed by vertical round pike rods. The tops of the pikes are in the form of palmettes which are reminiscent of unopened buds.
In the center of each link is an aegis: the mask of Medusa Gorgon on a shield and the month, surrounded by branches and palm leaves.
The gold leaf details stand out beautifully against the overall background. The faces of the arches are decorated with ornaments, the grid is supported on the outside by decorated brackets which structurally play the role of stiffening elements. The bridge is illuminated by original gilded lanterns with round lamps.
When planning a trip to this wonderful city it is important to decide on the place of residence. Among the hotels located in the center of the city worth considering a four-star hotel in the city center – Holiday Inn.
The first wooden bridge on the site of today’s Malo-Konyushenny Bridge was laid across the Moika River in 1716, subsequently it was located closer to the site of the current 2nd Sadovoy Bridge. Two bridges on this spot were built in the late 1730s, during the reign of Anna Ioannovna: the Pervo-Konyushenny Bridge was built over the Krivusha River (the future Griboyedov Canal), whose source was then only just connected with the Moika River, and the Malo-Konyushenny was built over the Moika. Both are wooden three-span drawbridges.
The Triple Bridge offers a beautiful view of the Savior on Spilled Blood
At the beginning of the 19th century several projects to replace wooden bridges with new metal or stone ones were proposed, but their implementation was constantly postponed. At that time in St. Petersburg a number of important buildings were under construction, the architectural ensemble of the Arts Square was being formed, and urban planners could not pay much attention to a couple of small bridges near Tsaritsyn Meadow. This lasted till 1807, when K. I. Rossi, who received an order to build a palace for Alexander I’s brother, Grand Duke Mikhail Pavlovich between the Catherine Canal and the Fontanka River, began to redesign the entire area surrounding the architectural complex he had planned. Among the buildings he designed for the development of the district were two unusual bridges, one of which rested on the banks of the Catherine Canal and the Moika River, the other on a common pylon in the middle of the Moika River. The name of Trokharchny Bridge also appeared at that time, although officially the two parts of the composition were named after the wooden bridges which had previously been there – the Malo-Konyushenniy and Teatralny bridges.
The project of building new cast-iron bridges over the old wooden ones was developed in 1807-1829 with the participation of architect V. I. Geste and engineer E. A. Adam, who proposed to build them as separate bridges. There is a variant of bridge description, in which the Pedestrian Bridge is considered as one of the bridge arches. According to this theory, during the construction of the bridge span is laid with a retaining wall-lintel. The reason is that otherwise, according to the laws of hydrodynamics, the river bed under the western span would be permanently blocked by silt. They were opposed by architects A. K. Moduy, V. I. Beretti, engineers A. A. Betancourt, P. P. Bazin, W. K. Tretter and M. G. Destrem, who proposed to combine the bridges into a single ensemble, which was eventually realized. The tubing that had been manufactured for the rebuilding of the Small Stable Bridge was not needed and was used for the rebuilding of the Large Stable Bridge.
The bridges were built under the direction of V. K. Tretter. The construction began on June 8, 1829 according to the project which was prepared in its final form by E. A. Adam. The project was supervised by the military governor general of St. Petersburg P. V. Golenischev-Kutuzov. The latter had supposed that the fences and the lanterns of the bridges would be of different appearance, but Tretter insisted that the bridges forming a single composition should be decorated in the same way.
The result of the work was the acceptance of the bridges by the city on January 8, 1832. On the bridges were installed gas lights, later replaced by electric lights.
In the distance the dome of the Book House can be seen.
At the end of the 19th and beginning of the 20th centuries St. Petersburg engineers and architects repeatedly proposed the demolition of both bridges and the construction of a single wide square bridge in their place. Fortunately, none of these projects was approved. Historical appearance of the bridges survived to this day without significant changes. The New Konjushenny Bridge, the Little Konjushenny Bridge and the Manege. The exception was the height of the lanterns: originally installed here were so high that the lanterns have fallen from them more than once (there was even a case of falling into the river). The governor-general of St. Petersburg corresponded with the Main Department of Transport in order to shorten the height of the lanterns, which was done. Only in 1936 during the overhaul the bridges underwent minor improvements: the bridge deck was paved with diabase, and the sidewalks were separated from the roadway by high granite kerb stones and asphalted.
During the restoration in 1952, according to the design of the architect A.L. Rotach, the decor of the lanterns and fences was restored. The last time the bridge ensemble was restored was in 1999, designed by engineer B. N. Brudno. The bridge deck was re-paved with hewn stone, and vehicular traffic on the bridges was discontinued. In 2001 within the framework of the “Luminous City” program the “Lensvet” organization has performed artistic illumination of the crossing. Eight spotlights-lights with stainless steel brackets were installed on each of the bridges, they were equipped with extra-strength glass panes. On November 10, 2002, the illumination was ceremonially turned on simultaneously on the three wings of the Triple Bridge, as well as on the Garden Bridge No.2 and the Italian Bridge.
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